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Open access

Agnieszka Ciurzyńska, Agata Pisarska, Ignacy Olsiński, Anna Maria Panfiluk, Magdalena Sylwia Ostap and Andrzej Lenart


This paper seeks to explain the structural effect on selected properties of freeze-dried gels with different compositions and aeration times. Herein, sugars and citric acid were added to gels with low-methoxyl pectin, mixtures of xanthan gum and locust bean gum, as well as xanthan gum and guar gum, in order to obtain a strawberry model. Strawberry pulp was also added to hydrocolloids to develop an innovative strawberry product. All samples were aerated for 3 and 7 min, and freeze-dried. Composition changes were found to modify the structure of the examined samples and properties. Freeze-dried gels with low-methoxyl pectin seemed to reflect the best approach towards obtaining an innovative strawberry product with a tailored structure, as they had the best water absorbent capacity, and the most attractive and delicate structure. Samples with a mixture of hydrocolloids were more compact. Aeration time did not significantly affect the examined parameters, while the addition of sugar and citric acid increased them. The strawberry pulp experiment confirmed the strawberry model (with low-methoxyl pectin gels, and sugar and citric acid), which had the finest structure and the best rehydration properties.

Open access

Piotr Major, Marcin Dembiński, Marek Winiarski, Michał Pędziwiatr, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Maciej Stanek, Jadwiga Dworak, Magdalena Pisarska, Kazimierz Rembiasz and Andrzej Budzyński


The reported prevalence of periampullary duodenal diverticula varies between 9 and 32.8%.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of periampullary diverticula in the studied population and establish whether their presence influence the risk of choledocholithiasis and the risk of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography (ERCP) related complications.

Material and methods. The study group of 3788 patients who underwent ERCP between 1996 and 2016 at the 2nd Department of General Surgery Jagiellonian University Medical College in Kraków were analyzed. The group comprised of 2464 women (mean age 61.7 years) and 1324 men (mean age 61.8 years). The patients were divided into two groups. Group A included patients in whom there were no periampullary diverticula detected. Group B included patients in whom the opening of the bile duct was in the vicinity of a duodenal diverticulum.

Results. There were 3332 patients included in group A (2154 women and 1178 men) and 456 patients in group B (310 women and 146 men). The prevalence of periampullary duodenal diverticula in the analyzed group was 12.8%. The presence of stones or biliary sludge was diagnosed in 1542 patients (47.6%) in group A and 290 patients (68.1%) in group B. Recurrence of choledocholithiasis occurred in 4.5% of patients (70/1542) in group A and 10.3% of patients (30/290) in group B. Complications occurred in a total of 76 patients in group A (2.3%) and 22 patients in group B (4.8%).

Conclusions. The presence of choledocholithiasis and the risk of ERCP related complications are significantly higher in the group with duodenal diverticula.

Open access

Michał Kisielewski, Michał Pędziwiatr, Magdalena Pisarska, Piotr Major, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Maciej Matłok, Marcin Migaczewski, Piotr Budzyński and Andrzej Budzyński


The aim of the study was to assess safety of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) performed by residents that are undergoing training in general surgery.

Material and methods. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 330 patients operated electively due to cholelithiasis. Patients with acute cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, undergoing cholecystec-tomy as a part of more extensive operation and patients with gall-bladder cancer were excluded. Group 1 included patients operated by resident, group 2 – by specialist. Duration of operation, mean blood loss, number of major complications, number of conversions to the open technique and conversions of the operator, reoperations and length of hospital stay were analyzed.

Results. Mean operative time overall was 81 min (25 – 170, SD±28.6) and 71 min (30-210, SD±29.1) in groups 1 and 2 respectively (p=0.00009). Mean blood loss in group 1 was 45±68.2 ml and in group 2 – 41±73.4 ml (p=0.23). Six major complications has occurred (1.81%) – 2 (2%) in group 1 and 4 (1.7%) in group 2. 18 cases (15.5%) of conversion of the operator occurred in group 1, and 6 cases (2.6%) of conversion of the operator happened in group 2. Average LOS was 1.9 days in group 1 and 2.3 days in group 2 (p=0.03979).

Conlcusions. Elective LC performed by a supervised resident is a safe procedure. Tactics of “conversion of operator” allowed to prevent major complications. Longer LC by residents is natural during the learning curve. Modifications of residency program in the field of laparoscopy may increase its accessibility.

Open access

Michał Pędziwiatr, Magdalena Pisarska, Maciej Matłok, Piotr Major, Michał Kisielewski, Mateusz Wierdak, Michał Natkaniec, Piotr Budzyński, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz and Rzej Budzyński


Postoperative insulin resistance, used as a marker of stress response, is clearly an adverse event. It may induce postoperative hyperglycemia, which according to some authors can increase the risk of postoperative complications. One of the elements of modern perioperative care is preoperative administration of oral carbohydrate loading (CHO-loading), which shortens preoperative fasting and reduces insulin resistance.

The aim of the study is to establish the influence of CHO-loading on the level of insulin resistance and cortisol in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Material and methods. Patients were randomly allocated to one of 2 groups. The intervention group included 20 patients who received CHO-loading (400 ml Nutricia pre-op®) 2 hours prior surgery. The control group received a placebo (clear water). In every patient blood samples were taken 2 hours prior to surgery, immediately after surgery, and on the 1st postoperative day. Levels and changes in glucose, cortisol and insulin resistance were analyzed in both groups.

Results. Although there were differences in the levels of cortisol, insulin, and insulin resistance, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups in every measurement. The length of stay and postoperative complications were comparable in both groups.

Conclusions. We believe that CHO-loading is not clinically justified in case of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No effect on the levels of glucose, insulin resistance and cortisol was observed. Even though such procedure is safe, in our opinion there is no clinical benefit from CHO-loading prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Open access

Michał Pędziwiatr, Magdalena Pisarska, Mateusz Wierdak, Piotr Major, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Michał Kisielewski, Maciej Matyja, Anna Lasek and Andrzej Budzyński


Age is one of the principal risk factors for colorectal adenocarcinoma. To date, older patients were believed to achieve worse treatment results in comparison with younger patients due to reduced vital capacity. However, papers have emerged in recent years which confirm that the combination of lap-aroscopy and postoperative care based on the ERAS protocol improves treatment results and may be particularly beneficial also for elderly patients.

The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer in combination with the ERAS protocol in patients aged above 80 and below 55.

Material and methods. The analysis included patients aged above 80 and below 55 undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal resection for cancer at the 2nd Department of General Surgery of the Jagiellonian University. They were divided into two groups according to their age: ≥80 years of age (group1) and ≤55 years of age (group 2). Both groups were compared with regard to the outcome of surgery: length hospital stay, complications, hospital readmissions, degree of compliance with the ERAS protocol, and recovery parameters (tolerance of oral nutrition, mobilisation, need for opioids, restored gastrointestinal function).

Results. Group 1 comprised 34 patients and group 2, 43 patients. No differences were found between both groups in terms of gender, BMI, tumour progression or surgical parameters. Older patients typically had higher ASA scores. No statistically significant differences were found with regard to the length hospital stay following surgery (5.4 vs 7 days, p=0.446481), the occurrence of complications (23.5% vs 37.2%, p=0.14579) or hospital readmissions (2.9% vs 2.4%). The degree of compliance with the ERAS protocol in group 1 and 2 was 85.2% and 83.0%, respectively (p=0.482558). Additionally, recovery parameters such as tolerance of oral nutrition (82.4% vs 72.1%, p=0.28628) and mobilisation (94.1% vs 83.7%, p=0.14510) within 24 hours of surgery did not differ among the groups. However, a smaller proportion of older patients required opioids in comparison with younger patients (26.5% vs 55.8%, p=0.00891).

Conclusions. Similar levels of compliance with the ERAS protocol may be achieved among patients aged ≥80 and younger patients. When laparoscopy is combined with the ERAS protocol, age does not seem to be a significant factor that could account for worse utcomes. Therefore, older patients should not be excluded from perioperative care based on ERAS principles.