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Open access

Beata Weintrit, Katarzyna Osińska-Skotak and Magdalena Pilarska

Abstract

This article presents an extensive feasibility study of the use of optical satellite data for flood risk monitoring. The article presents a review of existing and archival satellite systems. The capabilities and restrictions of using earth observation data are presented, in relation to the identified threat and taking into account the size, genesis and cause. The initial results of the studies demonstrate the potential of very high and highresolution satellite imagery for the operational detection of damage and risk areas. In the presented approach, two analyses were conducted: bare soil detection and water range detection, based on different radiometric indices. As a result of the conducted research, the best results in bare soil detection were obtained using the MSAVI and NDVI indices. The most effective at delimiting water was the NDVI index. The automatization of satellite data processing from different satellite systems gives opportunities for hydrological services and crisis management professionals to access accurate and up-to-date information about the condition of levees for the early detection of flood risk.

Open access

Agnieszka Wolna-Maruwka, Tomasz Piechota, Alicja Niewiadomska, Jacek Dach, Magdalena Szczech, Małgorzata Jędryczka and Agnieszka A. Pilarska

Abstract

The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum) in vegetable (onion and tomato) waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure). Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.

Open access

Agnieszka A. Pilarska, Krzysztof Pilarski, Kamil Witaszek, Hanna Waliszewska, Magdalena Zborowska, Bogusława Waliszewska, Marek Kolasiński and Karolina Szwarc-Rzepka

Abstract

The results of anaerobic digestion (AD) of buttermilk (BM) and cheese whey (CW) with a digested sewage sludge as inoculum is described. The substrate/inoculum mixtures were prepared using 10% buttermilk and 15% cheese whey. The essential parameters of the materials were described, including: total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), pH, conductivity, C/N ratio (the quantitative ratio of organic carbon (C) to nitrogen (N)), alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD). The potential directions of biodegradation of the organic waste types, as used in this study, are also presented. Appropriate chemical reactions illustrate the substrates and products in each phase of anaerobic decomposition of the compounds that are present in buttermilk and cheese whey: lactic acid, lactose, fat, and casein. Moreover, the biogas and biomethane production rates are compared for the substrates used in the experiment. The results have shown that buttermilk in AD generates more biogas (743 m3/Mg VS), including methane (527 m3/Mg VS), when compared with cheese whey (600 m3/Mg VS, 338 m3/Mg VS for biogas and methane, respectively).