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Open access

Tomasz Nowikiewicz, Wojciech Zegarski, Magdalena Piątkowska and Michał Klag

The primary goal of mammography screening is to decrease mortality in patients with breast cancer.

The aim of the study was evaluation of the screening program results on course of implemented therapy and its results in breast carcinoma patients.

Material and methods. Evidence includes data on the group of 1818 patients with breast cancer that were subject to surgical treatment at the Clinic of Breast Cancer and Reconstructive Surgery of the Oncology Center in Bydgoszcz (558 patients hospitalized from January 2006 to December 2006 and 1260 patients treated from January 2011 to June 2012). Analysis included type of diagnostic procedure implemented before surgical treatment, as well as grade of cancer progression, results of pathology tests done on specimens and type of surgical procedure. Additionally, the screening group (tumor diagnosed based on screening mammography) and symptomatic group (cancer diagnosed otherwise that within the screening program) were identified.

Results. In 2006, in 28.4% of patients included in the study, primary tumor was discover in screening process (vs 61.5% in 2011-2012). In the first period, 35.7% of changes did not exceed 2 cm - cT1 (vs 48.3% in 2011-2012), while the percentage of cT4 was 9.9% (vs 4.7% in 2011-2012). In 2006, 30.8% of patients were treated in the grade I of clinical progression (vs 44.2% in 2011-2012), 53.4% in the grade II, 14% in grade III and 0.2% in grade IV (vs 45.7%, 9.7%, and 0.4%, respectively). In 45.5% (2006) and 39.9% (in 2011-2012) of patients, metastases were found in axillary lymph nodes. Differences were similar both in screening and symptomatic group. In 2006, in 12.4% of surgical patients breast conserving therapy (BCT) was implemented (vs 49.8% in 2011-2012). In the screening group, it was applied in 15.2% of patients (in 2006) and in 63% (in 2011- 2012), while in symptomatic group the percentages were 11.8% and 41%, respectively.

Conclusions. In both periods of analysis, significant differences were observed as to implementation of breast cancer screening program, as well as to grade of clinical and pathological progression of the cancer. Observable increase of screening tests allowed for significantly more frequent implementation of breast conserving surgical procedures.

Open access

Magdalena Izdebska, Iwona Piątkowska-Chmiel and Ewa Jagiełło-Wójtowicz


In in vitro study on green monkey kidney (GMK) cell culture, the cytotoxicity of Ukrain, methotrexate (MTX), and their combination was investigated. The effect of these drugs and their combination on viability (MTT test) and apoptosis of the cells was assessed. The IC10 and IC50 values for Ukrain and MTX were also indicated. After 24 h of incubation of GMK cells with Ukrain, IC10 amounted to 84.6 μmol/L and IC50 was 256.3 μmol/L, while MTX IC10 amounted to 7.18 μmol/L and IC50 was 154.8 μmol/l. After 24 h of simultaneous incubation of GMK cells with 50 μmol/L of Ukrain and 5.5 μmol/L of MTX, 15.33 % of cytotoxicity of the drugs in LDH test was found. The most significant increase in the cytotoxicity (42.10 %) was noted after 24 h incubation of GMK cells with 150 μmol/L of Ukrain and 5.5 μmol/L of MTX. Likewise, in the MTT assay the greatest decrease in the cells viability was found after incubation with 150 μmol/L of Ukrain and 5.5 μmol/L of MTX. The evaluation of apoptosis also indicated the adverse effect of combined application of both drugs on GMK cells.

Open access

Barbara Cichy, Jacek Kwiecień, Magdalena Piątkowska, Ewa Kużdżał, Edyta Gibas and Grażyna Rymarz

Polyolefin oxo-degradation accelerators - a new trend to promote environmental protection

The paper presents the results of the tests on the preparation of iron (III) stearate - the most prominent oxo-biodegradation agent for polyolefinic plastics. The process chosen for testing was the double precipitation process, using stearic acid alkalised with soda lye and iron (III) chloride or iron (III) sulphate. A number of iron (III) stearate preparation methods described in the literature were tested and an analytical procedure for monitoring the process was developed using both the classical and instrumental techniques. FTIR spectroscopy is the most useful technique for the product quality control and identification. During the study the characteristics of the proper product were also determined using the DSC methods. Microscopy and laser diffraction particle size analysis were applied to determine the size of the precipitated product grains. An application sample of the product obtained by the double decomposition method from iron (III) sulphate as the iron carrier has successfully passed the application tests in the polyethylene packaging film.

Open access

Tadeusz Groń, Magdalena Piątkowska, Elżbieta Tomaszewicz, Bogdan Sawicki, Piotr Urbanowicz and Henryk Duda


Polycrystalline samples of new scheelite-type tungstates, Pb1−3x xPr2xWO4 with 0.0098 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.20, where denotes cationic vacancies have been successfully prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction method using Pr2(WO4)3 and PbWO4 as the starting reactants. The influence of the Pr3+ substitution in the scheelite framework on the structure and optical properties of prepared new ceramic materials has been examined using powder X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The results of dielectric studies of Pb1−3x xPr2xWO4 samples showed both low values of dielectric constant (below 14) and loss tangent (below 0.2). The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power measurements revealed a low conductivity (∼2 × 10−9 S/m) and the sign change of thermoelectric power around the temperature of 366 K suggesting the p-n transition. These results are discussed in the context of vacancy, acceptor and donor levels as well as the Maxwell-Wagner model.