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Open access

Magdalena Malec, Marek Ryczek and Sławomir Klatka

Abstract

The “Land of the Valleys” lying in the area of the Lutowiska district in the Western Bieszczady Mts. is undergoing unwelcome succession-related changes, such as for example the extinction of valuable plant species or even whole plant associations, and the disappearance of the mosaic pattern of biocoenoses. It is therefore necessary to conduct investigations aimed at assessing the natural values of this region.

The natural assets of the Lutowiska district, where the three raised peat bogs under study (Wołosate, Litmirz and Tarnawa) are situated, were assessed using the Oświt [1995] method for the natural valuation of wetlands and associated landscapes. The method involves awarding points to three groups of indicators: (i) the scope and forms of nature conservation; (ii) general natural values; and (iii) the richness of wetland biotopes, plant communities and flora [Oświt and Dembek 1995]. Altogether, the district scored 60.7 valuation points (with 9 points for relief richness included), which allows classifying it as an area with very high natural values (class VIII on a scale of I-X).

Open access

Magdalena Malec, Sławomir Klatka, Marek Ryczek and Edyta Kruk

Abstract

The main purpose of the work was to determine the scope and degree of the influence of exploitation on changes of plant cover of the raised peat-bog Baligówka, located in the Orawsko- Nowotarska Valley. The analysis was carried out based on 47 phytosociological surveys using the Braun-Blanquet method. Results of investigations allow to state that excessive drying and fires that took place on the examined object caused wastage of many precious species of plants, especially from the Oxycocco- Sphagnetea class. Their place occupied species belonging to other classes, such as Nardo-Callunetea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea. The basic cause of drying of the peat-bog and, in consequence, dying of peat formation species is intensified exploitation and connected with this drainage, carried out in the half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, local people up to now illegally have harvested the peat on the investigated object. Decrease in groundwater level leads to accelerated decay of peat, changes in physical and chemical properties of a substratum and, in consequence, changes in trophic values of habitat, what causes great changes in species composition of plant communities.

Open access

Marek Ryczek, Edyta Kruk, Magdalena Malec and Sławomir Klatka

Abstract

In this work, results of evaluation of potential water erosion threat of the Smuga stream basin in Beskid Wyspowy were presented according to the USLE model and the GIS techniques. The basin area is 5.40 km2; mean height is 636.4 m a.s.l. and mean basin slope is 21.32%. The basin is in a significant part covered by forest which is 54.26%, grasslands occupy 8.15% and arable lands 34.63%. The highest water erosion threat takes place on arable lands with high slopes and defective cultivation. Calculated soil loss is 2078.59 Mg yearly, which gives a unitary loss of 3.85 Mg for 1 ha. This classifies the investigated basin as very low threatened – second class in sixth degree scale.

Open access

Marek Ryczek, Edyta Kruk, Magdalena Malec and Sławomir Klatka

Abstract

On one hand, direct methods of measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity coefficient are time consuming, and on the other hand, laboratory methods are cost consuming. That is why the popularity of empirical methods has increased. Their main advantages are speed of calculations and low costs. Comparison of various empirical methods (pedotransfer functions) for the determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity coefficient was the purpose of this work. The methods used were Shepard’s, Hazen’s, USBR (United States Bureau of Reclamation), Saxton et al.’s, Kozeny–Carman’s, Krüger’s, Terzaghi’s, Chapuis’s, Sheelheim’s, Chapuis’, and NAVFAC (Naval Facilities Engineering Command) methods. Calculations were carried out for the soil samples of differential texture. The obtained results shows the methods used for the determination of permeability coefficient differ considerably. Mean values obtained by analysed methods fluctuated between 0.0006 and 12.0 m·day−1. The results of calculations by the chosen methods were compared with the results of the laboratory method. The best compatibility with laboratory method was obtained by using the Terzaghi method.

Open access

Sławomir Klatka, Krzysztof Boroń, Marek Ryczek and Magdalena Malec

Abstract

The aim of the work was the determination of productivity index (PI) of soil in the area of exploitation activity of the Mine-Energetic Plant “Janina” in Libiąż using the Zhenqi Hu et al. [1992] method. Studies were carried out in mining subsidence basin in the Żarki village near Libiąż where two soil pits were realised and material for laboratory investigations was taken. Soil properties determined in laboratory used the Zhenqi Hu et al. [1992] algorithm method and values of PI were calculated. Mean value of PI amounted 0.67, which classifies the investigated area as one of the conditions for poor agricultural production. Changes of primary soil properties caused by mining activity of the Mine-Energetic Plant “Janina” had the highest influence on the calculated PIs. The determined PIs show the necessity of undertaking reclamation works for restoring primary properties of soil

Open access

Sławomir Klatka, Magdalena Malec, Marek Ryczek and Edyta Kruk

Abstract

In the work, evaluation of agricultural production space of the area at the Węglowa street in Jastrzębie Zdrój is presented. The method of the synthetic indicator proposed at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation in Puławy was used in the calculation. The determined synthetic indicator of agricultural production space of the investigated area classifies it as the area of mean conditions for agricultural production. Geomechanical and hydrological degradation of soil increasing in time may cause changes of values of this indicator and also high deterioration of environmental conditions of agricultural production.