The literature of the Tatars of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania constitutes the most important and richest part of their cultural heritage, as well as a lasting trace of Tatar settlements in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The literature that flourished during the spiritual revival of the Renaissance and Reformation somewhere in the seemingly God-forsaken, remote Eastern Borderlands has not been forgotten; on the contrary, it has been recognised as a unique phenomenon of great spiritual, literary and cultural value. This phenomenon manifests itself in the extraordinary combination of the Oriental Islamic culture and Christian culture, two components that appear to be mutually exclusive but are in fact in perfect harmony with each other, both in the life of society and in the literary works of Polish-Lithuanian Tatars.
The paper is dedicated to literary manuscripts of the Tatars of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, including their genesis at the background of the Tatar settlement in the territory of the Republic of Poland, characteristic features and typology of the manuscripts on the basis of the criteria of form and content. Furthermore, the author discusses the research areas, beginning with the description of the state of research on Tatar manuscripts from the point of view, through the characteristics of the current research on this matter, as well as reporting the institutions running and coordinating the interdisciplinary and international activities within the scope of the research, editing and popularization of the issues connected with the kitabistics.
Hanna Ruszkowska, Magdalena Lewicka, Magdalena Sulima, Grzegorz Bakalczuk, Anna Taracha and Artur Wdowiak
Introduction. The structure was based on the World Health Organisation classification. The article includes description of main causes, diagnostics and treatment of menstrual disorders. Menstrual disorder is an abnormal condition in woman’s menstrual cycle. There are disorders of ovulation, cycle length, blood flow and others. The article reviews hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, disorders of hypothalamic pituitary axis, ovarian insufficiency, congenital malformations, hyperprolactinaemia, genetic syndromes, pituitary gland tumours and unclassified disorders like premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhoea. Aim. Analysis of current literature with the focus on the systematisation of menstrual disorders. Conclusion. It is crucial for medical practitioners, who take care of a female patient, to have reliable knowledge of not only physiology, but also menstrual disorders. It will allow an early recognition of the symptoms, proper diagnosis and treatment in the optimal time.
Iwona Lisowska, Magdalena Lewicka, Magdalena Sulima, Weronika Topyła, Dominik Ruta and Artur Wdowiak
Introduction. It is well known that the period of maternity commencing from conception is accompanied by great emotions. Each stage is associated with specific behavior as well as the anxiety. The postpartum period is particularly exposed to stress and the ability to overcome it is very important, therefore the support of the loved ones is necessary. Aim. Assessment of the severity of the stress levels of women in childbirth. Material and methods. The research was conducted among 178 women during the postpartum period. The methods of diagnostic survey and own questionnaires were used, as well as PSS-10 standardized tool. Results. The study involved 178 women during the postpartum period. Interpretation of results for the level of stent PSS-10 showed low results - 23.6%, average - 32.6%, high - 43.8% due to a high stress level. Statistically significant factors are: marital status - married women experience lower stress levels, socioeconomic status - the higher socioeconomic status, the test group felt lower stress, birth time - there is a significant difference between women giving birth before 37 weeks and those giving birth in right term. Particular age group, place of residence, education, the number of births and the way of birth are not factors that differentiate levels of perceived stress of women in childbirth. Conclusions. Perinatal period is a time of dynamic changes characterized by high levels of stress. Age, place of residence, education, number of births and way of birth do not affect the level of stress, whereas marital status, socioeconomic situation and the date of birth determine stress levels for women.
Gabriela Henrykowska, Andrzej Buczyński, Małgorzata Lewicka and Magdalena Zawadzka
During the last decades, there has been a rapid development in the research and use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), and modern medicine is increasingly taking advantage of its beneficial effects. The aim of the study was to check the level of knowledge of future doctors (medical students) on hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
The survey was conducted among 240 students of the medical faculty (3rd and 5th year of study) of the Military and Medical Faculty of the Medical University of Lodz. The author’s questionnaire with forced-choice questions was used as research tool.
The students’ knowledge of hyperbaric oxygen therapy was varied and in some cases was not dependent on the year of study. It was observed that students’ knowledge of the subject matter depends on the number of teaching hours allocated to it.
Artur Wdowiak, Grzegorz Bakalczuk, Elwira Dadej, Anita Wdowiak, Michał Filip, Edyta Wdowiak, Magdalena Lewicka and Magdalena Sulima
Pregnancy is a woman’s physiological state, covering the period from conception to birth. It is an important time in the life of every woman and the child’s father. Often, the parents-to-be find the new situation difficult. Childbirth classes may prove helpful during pregnancy and childbirth for mothers and fathers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of antenatal classes on parturition, according to the assessment of patients. The study was conducted at the Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski Provincial Specialist University Hospital in Lublin at the maternity ward on a group of 155 patients by means of diagnostic survey. The survey, by which the research material was collected, has been developed with the author’s own method. It has been shown that education and age of the participants influence the decision to use the services of childbirth education classes. Furthermore, the knowledge of breathing techniques, the use of birthing facilities, development of a plan for parturition and knowledge of methods of pain relief of childbirth have no impact on its duration. It was also shown that it is important to use relevant childbirth positions.
Agnieszka Skurzak, Marta Zarajczyk, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus, Magdalena Korżyńska-Piętas, Magdalena Lewicka and Henryk Wiktor
Introduction. Satisfaction with life is a general assessment of satisfaction with one’s own achievements and living conditions on many levels. This includes human cognitive processes, expressing the emotional state that occurs as a result of achieving a specific goal. According to Juczyński, the assessment of life satisfaction is the result of confronting one’s own situation with the adopted criteria. If the result of the comparison is positive, the implication is the feeling of satisfaction. Satisfaction with life of pregnant women is dependent on many factors, including: personality traits, emotions, sociodemographic, factors as well as numerous physiological and psychological changes occurring during pregnancy.
Aim. The aim of the study is to assess the level of life satisfaction of pregnant women depending on sociodemographic factors.
Material and methods. The research was conducted on 415 women hospitalized and receiving care in counseling centers for pregnant women. The research was carried out by means of a diagnostic survey using a standardized Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and an original questionnaire to collect demographic data.
Results. Based on the average assessment of life satisfaction, it was found that 48.43% (n = 201) of the surveyed pregnant women was characterized by a high degree of life satisfaction, 35.18% (n = 146) average, and 16.39% (n = 68) of the respondents experienced a low level of life satisfaction.
Conclusions. Sociodemographic factors conditioned the feeling of satisfaction with life of pregnant women. Pregnant women who had a greater sense of life satisfaction were: those in relationship rather than those who were single; women with higher education than those with basic, vocational or secondary education; pregnant women working mentally rather than those not working.