Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author: Magdalena Larska x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Magdalena Larska, Aleksandra Kuta and Mirosław P. Polak

Abstract

Two issues concerning virus detection and identification of persistently infected (PI) cattle were analysed in the study: 1) interference by maternal antibodies and 2) discrimination between PI and transiently infected (TI) animals. Antigen ELISA and RT-PCR based methods were compared using serum samples from natural and experimental PI and TI calves. RT-PCR and realtime RT-PCR using primers within 5’UTR region were more sensitive in detecting PI animals than Erns and NS3 antigen capture ELISAs, and they were not influenced by the presence of colostral antibodies in serum or by bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype. The serum samples with Ct values ≤ 29.10 (corresponding to 104.87 viral RNA copies/μL) identified PI animals with 100% probability, while all samples with Ct values > 32.06 (corresponding to viral RNA load below 104 copies/μL) indicated TI status. The samples with Ct values between 29.10 and 32.06 (17.2% of PI and 11.5% of TI) should be considered as PI suspect and retested.

Open access

Magdalena Larska, Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska and Aleksandra Kuta

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) specific antibodies in ruminants from 13 Polish provinces, sampled between January 2010 and August 2013. A total number of 1813 serum samples from cattle, sheep, goats, mouflon, wild and farmed cervids, and European bison were tested by ELISA for viral nucleoprotein antibodies. First SBV seropositive animals were identified in August 2012 (1.6%), and the percentage increased gradually, reaching 57.1% in December of this year. The proportion of seropositive animals in 2013 at the level of 34.2% increased tenfold in comparison to 2012 (3.4%), which was particularly significant at the level of individual provinces. In 2013, the highest percentages of SBV seropositive animals were found in Dolnoslaskie (92.3%), Podlaskie (82.3%), and Zachodniopomorskie (80.9%) provinces. Significant associations between the seroprevalence and province of origin, month, ruminant species, and insect vector activity were found, while no dependence of animal age on seropositivity was observed. The differences between SBV seropositive large and small ruminants suggested the involvement of some vector exposure factors, which needs to be further investigated.

Open access

Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Artur Jabłoński and Magdalena Larska

Abstract

Introduction: A novel to Europe Schmallenberg virus (SBV) causes clinical disease manifested by reproduction disorders in farm ruminants. In free-living ruminants, SBV antibodies as well as the virus were detected. Recent studies also revealed SBV antibodies in wild boars. The study investigates SBV antibodies occurring in wild boars in Poland at the peak of recent virus epidemics in the country.

Material and Methods: Samples collected from 203 wild boars culled during the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 hunting season were serologically tested using multi-species cELISA. Attempted neutralisation tests failed due to poor serum quality. RT-PCR was implemented in seropositive and doubtful animals.

Results: Two samples collected from wild boar in the winter of 2013 gave a positive result in ELISA, while another two from the 2012/2013 hunting season were doubtful. No SBV RNA was detected in spleen and liver tissues.

Conclusion: Low SBV seroprevalence in wild boars, despite high incidence of SBV infections occurring simultaneously in wild ruminants, suggests that boars are unlikely to be a significant reservoir of the virus in the sylvatic environment in Poland.

Open access

Jacek Karamon, Magdalena Larska, Agnieszka Jasik and Bartosz Sell

Abstract

A 3-year-old female fallow deer was subjected to the necropsy and virological testing, due to a suspected infectious disease in the herd of farmed deer in the Southeastern region of Poland. The animal was found negative for the presence of BVDV, BoHV-1, BTV, and EHDV antibodies and BVDV antigen. The toxicological examination did not reveal any coccidiostats, mycotoxins, rodenticides, carbamate pesticides, and organophosphorus pesticides. The flukes found during postmortem examination were first characterised microscopically as Fascioloides magna and later their identity was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The autopsy revealed lesions characteristic for F. magna infection, including different size cystic spaces in the liver, filled with brownish mucous fluid and flukes, and black pigment covering the surface of parietal and visceral peritoneum with the highest concentrations localised next to the liver. The changes observed in the liver tissue were typical of liver cirrhosis. The results demonstrated that in Poland, where the cervid farming is developing dynamically, the problem of fascioloidosis is present and may probably exert a significantly negative influence on the productivity of such farms if no antiparasitic treatment is performed.

Open access

Michał K. Krzysiak, Jerzy Dackiewicz, Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska and Magdalena Larska

Abstract

The study presents the analysis of the findings of 234 post-mortem examinations on free-ranging and captive European bison selectively culled or having fallen between 2008 and 2013 in Białowieża Primeval Forest. Pneumonia, emphysema, nephritis, bodily traumas, and intestinal lesions were observed in 106 (45.3%), 77 (32.9%), 82 (35.0%), 68 (29.1%), and 56 (23.9%) animals respectively and were the most common pathological changes. Almost half of all males (66 out of 140; 47.1%) tested showed some pathological changes of prepuce and penis, described as posthitis or balanoposthitis. Infection with liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus) was observed macroscopically in 114 (48.7%) and 80 (32.9%) bison respectively. F. hepatica prevalence was associated with the emergence of other liver changes such as hepatitis and cirrhosis (P < 0.001). Similarly, the prevalence of D. viviparus coincided with pneumonia (P = 0.001), changes in the upper respiratory tract (P = 0.04), and emphysema (P < 0.001). Hepatitis, infection with F. hepatica, and pathological lesions in the male and female reproductive tracts were associated with the animals’ age. Mechanical injuries, caused by other bison or less commonly by traffic accidents, were the most common cause of death of bison below six months of age. Most pathological changes were significantly more frequent in the selectively culled animals in comparison with the ones having fallen, which confirms the desirability of elimination as a tool to improve the health and welfare of the bison population and limit the number of reservoirs of invasive and possibly infectious diseases.

Open access

Aleksandra Kuta, Mirosław P. Polak, Magdalena Larska and Jan F. Żmudziński

Abstract

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was developed for genetic typing of Polish strains of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The method was applied using 60 BVDV isolates, which included BVDV genotype 1, subtypes a, b, d, e, f, and g, and genotype 2a. RT-PCR products of the 5’untranslated region (5’UTR) were digested using three enzymes. Restriction patterns classified the strains into seven groups, each with a specific and different pattern from other subtypes. These findings were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results suggest that RFLP analysis is a simple, reliable, and fast genotyping method for BVDV strains in comparison with sequencing. This method can distinguish six subtypes of BVDV-1 including a new subtype 1e, identified exclusively by this method, and it allows differentiation of BVDV-1 from BVDV-2 genotype.

Open access

Aleksandra Kuta, Mirosław P. Polak, Magdalena Larska and Jan F. Żmudziński

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the status of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in selected dairy herds in Poland with the use of commercial enzyme linked immonosorbent assay for the detection of specific antibodies (BVDV-Ab ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of viral RNA, using bulk tank milk (BTM) samples. Two hundred and thirty-one samples of BTM were collected from 99 dairy herds in Poland. The herds were divided into four different classes according to the Swedish system of classification. The results showed that 70.7% of herds were BVDV antibodypositive. High levels of antibodies in 52.85 % (37 herds in class 3) of all antibody positive herds indicated acute BVDV infection. Thirty five samples with the highest antibody levels were tested by RT-PCR and five of them were positive for viral RNA. Dairy herds in Poland have high levels of antibodies against BVDV in BTM. Since no vaccination was implemented in the herds tested, high seroprevalence of BVDV antibodies in cattle indicates the widespread of BVDV infection in Polish cattle.