Magdalena Brodowicz-Król, Małgorzata Pachuta and Zofia Pękała
Introduction. It seems that the society should accept the legal and moral responsibility and the care over the injured individuals due to their health problems. Medical staff, doctors and nurses play a major role in the care of children, it is them who are in a direct contact with them in the course of the stay in hospital. The reaction of a child, as an exceptional patient, is quite varied as for the stay in different institutions. Patience, warmth and understanding are features which are necessary in the adaptation to conditions of the treatment. The medical professionals somehow replace parents and care providers, and create home-like environment for these children which means they can always count on help and understanding.
Aim. The purpose of this research was to portray children in hospital as well as their stance toward the current situation, expectations, pleasures and aversions.
Material and methods. The authors of the study examined 20 patients of a surgical clinic, both girls and boys. They applied the method of the diagnostic survey. The research was done using theinterview technique based on contents of unfinished sentences. 12 girls and 8 boys took part in the examination.
Results and conclusion. The examinations reveal that in order to combat negative feelings and overcome loneliness amongill children, hospitals should prolong the visiting time for family and friends and locate patients in rooms according to age, sex or disease. Delivering the greater scope of information provides a sense of security to children and hence has a positive effect to the adaptation to hospital settings.
Alina Trojanowska, Danuta Zarzycka, Magdalena Brodowicz-Król, Arkadiusz Jędrzejewski and Anna Wiktor
Aim. The aim of the study was to investigate parents’ knowledge and attitudes towards compulsory immunization of their children.
Material and methods. The research was conducted with the survey questionnaire among 110 randomly chosen parents aged 18-40 whose infants were inpatients at the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin.
Results. The study revealed that parents were poorly informed about the age of the first vaccination of their infant, compulsory and recommended vaccines, combined vaccines, contraindications for vaccination and adverse reactions following immunization. More than 50% of the parents had a rather positive attitude towards vaccination. However, one fifth admitted that they had seen campaigns which presented immunization of children as harmful. The most popular opinion among the respondents was that compulsory and recommended vaccinations for children should be given only against the most dangerous diseases. The majority of parents considered vaccinations to be safe and only a small percentage of parents were against immunizing their children due to possible health complications. Most of the parents were willing to immunize their children with all the compulsory vaccines and only several recommended ones (as they are not free of charge). Many of them declared they would choose combined vaccines.
Conclusions. Attitudes of parents towards immunization of children varied in the studied group. We concluded that parents were generally poorly informed about immunization of infants. The fact that knowledge about vaccinations may influence parents’ future decisions to protect their children against numerous infectious diseases calls for intensified education on the subject.
Daria Chmielewska, Magdalena Piecha, Edward Blaszczak, Piotr Król, Agnieszka Smykla and Grzegorz Juras
Vibration training has become a popular method used in professional sports and recreation. In this study, we examined the effect of whole-body vibration training on the central nervous system and muscle excitability in a group of 28 active men. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of two experimental groups with different variables of vibrations. The chronaximetry method was used to evaluate the effect of a single session of whole-body vibration training on the excitability of the rectus femoris and brachioradialis muscles. The examination of the fusing and flickering frequencies of the light stimulus was performed. An increase in the excitability of the quadriceps femoris muscle due to low intensity vibrations (20 Hz frequency, 2 mm amplitude) was noted, and a return to the initial values was observed 30 min after the application of vibration. High intensity vibrations (60 Hz frequency, 4 mm amplitude) caused elongations of the chronaxy time; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Neither a low intensity vibration amplitude of 2 mm (frequency of 20 Hz) nor a high intensity vibration amplitude of 4 mm (frequency of 60 Hz) caused a change in the excitability of the central nervous system, as revealed by the average frequency of the fusing and flickering of the light stimulus. A single session of high intensity whole-body vibration did not significantly decrease the excitability of the peripheral nervous system while the central nervous system did not seem to be affected.
This study presents the synthesis of geopolymer materials designed for application as self-supporting zeolite membranes. For this purpose, batches of metakaolin activated with sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide were used. During synthesis, it was assumed that low temperatures are sufficient to receive the membranes. The composition of raw materials and temperature of activation were selected in such a way so as to correspond to the basic chemical compositions and synthesis conditions of sodalite as well as zeolites A and X. Additionally, the structural and textural properties of geopolymers were determined. The results show that it is possible to obtain composite zeolite structures in an amorphous matrix. A number of synthesized materials were used in the sorption of selected heavy metal cations (Ni2+, Zn2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+). It was concluded that the investigated geopolymerization process may be applied to obtain a material with potential use as a heavy metal sorbent.
Magdalena Król, Justyna Morawska, Włodzimierz Mozgawa and Waldemar Pichór
In this paper a review of the recent studies on the synthesis of zeolites from expanded perlite under hydrothermal conditions is presented. Attention is paid to possible outcomes of synthesis from low cost glass material, such as perlite. The study also investigates the phase composition of zeolitic materials obtained by modification of by-product derived from an expanded perlite production process. The synthesis was made using the hydrothermal method with sodium hydroxide under autogenous pressure at a temperature below 100 °C for 1 to 72 h. It was possible to obtain a zeolitic material at a temperature as low as 60 °C using 4.0 M NaOH. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the biggest peak intensity of zeolite X with 4.0 M NaOH at the temperature of 70 °C. During synthesis at higher temperature zeolite Na-P1 (with 3.0 M NaOH at 90 °C) and hydroxysodalite (with 5.0 M NaOH at 90 °C) were obtained.
Magdalena Król, Justyna Morawska, Włodzimierz Mozgawa and Waldemar Pichór
The paper investigates the properties of sodium zeolites synthesized using the hydrothermal method under autogenous pressure at low temperature with NaOH solutions of varying concentrations. During this modification, zeolites X, Na-P1 and hydroxysodalite were synthesized. The synthesis parameters, and thus, phase composition of resulting samples, significantly affected the specific surface area (SSA) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). SSA increased from 2.9 m2/g to a maximum of 501.2 m2/g, while CEC rose from 16 meq/100 g to a maximum of 500 meq/100 g. The best properties for use as a sorbent were obtained for perlite waste modified with 4.0 M NaOH at 70 °C or 80 °C.
Adam Kantanista, Michał Bronikowski, Ida Laudańska-Krzemińska, Magdalena Król-Zielińska and Wiesław Osiński
Study aim: To assess the effects of an eight-week pedometer-based walking intervention, using different strategies of goalsetting, on self-efficacy, physical activity enjoyment, and body image.
Material and methods: The study included data from 82 girls, aged 16 to 18 years. The participants took part in the intervention using goal setting with the do your best strategy (do your best group, n = 26) or specific step goals predetermined by the researcher (predetermined goals group, n = 56). The group of participants from the predetermined goals group was divided into a group of those achieving the goals (n = 28) and a group where goals were not achieved (n = 28). Self-efficacy, body image, and physical activity enjoyment were assessed before and after the intervention.
Results: The results of ANOVA with repeated measures between the measurement times and groups showed a significant effect of body image (F = 3.60, p = 0.03, η² = 0.08) and physical activity enjoyment (F = 3.10, p = 0.05, η² = 0.07). Participants who achieved goals in step counts predetermined by the researcher had a more positive body image and a higher level of physical activity enjoyment after the intervention.
Conclusion: An eight-week pedometer-based walking program implemented in a school setting may improve body image and physical activity enjoyment in adolescent girls only if the set goals (the number of steps) are specific and fully achieved by participants. Using pedometers in conjunction with a goal setting program seems to be an effective motivational way to improve physical activity in female students.
Adam Kantanista, Magdalena Król-Zielińska, Joanna Borowiec, Agata Glapa, Paweł Lisowski and Michał Bronikowski
Study aim: the aim of this study was to assess the step counts of children and adolescents with different BMIs and to present the results in relation to the step count recommendation.
Material and methods: the study included data from 175 girls, aged 12–18 (45 participants from primary school, 69 participants from junior high school and 61 participants from high school). Voluntary participants were recruited from public schools in Poland. Step counts were measured using pedometers (Yamax Digi-Walker SW 701) over seven consecutive days.
Results: the recommended level of 12000 steps per day was achieved by only 14.9% of participants. The step counts performed by girls, especially at the primary school age, are currently insufficient. Participants’ achievement of the recommended step count level correlated with a lower BMI.
Conclusions: few female children and adolescents are meeting daily step recommendations, which highlights the importance of school and community-based programmes designed to increase daily activity patterns.