Piotr Bawiec, Magdalena Halabis, Zbigniew Marzec, Andrzej Kot, Janusz Solski and Kinga Gawel
Considering the nutritional values, breadstuff plays a big part in covering human nourishment needs and constitutes a base of all day diet. Moreover, bread is an excellent source of numerous vitamins and minerals the abundance of which depends on the degree of grinding. Thus, it seems to be very important to know the composition and level of bio-elements. That is why the main target of this study was to evaluate the concentration of selected trace elements: chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in wheat grain, wheat bran, different wheat and rye flour types and variety of breadstuff also with addition of grains and seeds from different bakeries and mills. Another task was to analyze if the technological process has an influence on secondary despoil of bread goods with heavy metal elements. The analyzed trace elements were measured with a precise and accurate atomic absorption spectrophotometric method (AAS) and the results were expressed in mg/kg of selected sample. Obtained results show that bread and grain products are a good source of trace elements like chromium, nickel, iron and manganese. However, the higher levels of chromium and nickel in bread goods could rather be an effect of impurity caused by a technological process in mill and bakeries.
Magdalena Halabis, Marcin Dziedzic, Joanna Warchulinska, Iwona Kaznowska-Bystryk and Janusz Solski
Adipose tissue is at a point of high interest in medical research, not only as an energy depot, but also because it secretes nearly more than 600 cytokines. These are termed‚ adipokines’. Human adipokines are involved in numerous metabolic processes, including the regulation of appetite, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, inflammation and cardiovascular activity. Thus, these could be clinically important as a markers of adipose tissue function and increased metabolic risk. The search for novel adipokines linking obesity to related co-morbidities has become a major topic in obesity research. In such work, there is an increasing need to define their function, their molecular targets and their potential clinical relevance as biomarkers or in the treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases.
Omentin (34 kDa) is a recently identified fat deposition-specific adipokine with multiple interactions. Concentrations of omentin have been shown to be decreased in patients with obesity and impaired glucose regulation, in patients afflicted with diabetes type 1 and 2, and in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. These are all diseases commonly associated with insulin resistance and obesity. The aim of this study was to show and compare the latest information about omentin and its relationships with obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS), inflammation, cardiac problems, sex hormone imbalances and cancer.
The association of omentin with particular metabolic indexes may suggest that an elevation in omentin level may be seen as being a marker for leanness, while a decreased level will underline possible situations of overweight and obesity along with their comorbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and even cancer). However, a challenge for the future is to fully understand the multiple role played by omentin. Thus, more studies in these matter are required.
Marek Babicz, Marcin Hałabis, Piotr Skałecki, Piotr Domaradzki, Anna Litwińczuk, Kinga Kropiwiec-Domańska and Magdalena Łukasik
The aim of the study was to discuss breeding of pigs of the Pulawska breed, which is included in a Genetic Resources Conservation Programme, and to analyse performance parameters that are useful in domestic pig production. The Pulawska breed is the oldest native breed of pig in Poland. Since 1996 it has been protected by a genetic resources conservation programme, owing to breeding traditions and the production traits characteristic of the breed. The use value of these pigs is currently at the level of maternal breeds: number of live piglets born per litter – 10.54; number of piglets reared per litter – 9.37; daily weight gains – 569 g for breeding boars and 562 g for breeding gilts; meat content – 54.6% for breeding boars and 54.9% for breeding gilts. An important element in favour of the use of this breed in domestic production of fresh pork and pork products is its meat quality parameters. The mean values for physical traits (WHC 22.42%, pH45 6.47, pH24 5.63) and chemical parameters (protein 22.70%, fat 2.65%) are characteristic of meat of normal quality. The Pulawska breed can be used to produce high-quality fresh meat and meat products, including traditional and regional ones. Pulawska pigs are bred and reared according to the principles of sustainable agriculture, which reduces the negative impact of pig production on the natural environment.
Marek Babicz, Kinga Kropiwiec-Domańska, Magdalena Szyndler-Nędza, Agnieszka M. Grzebalska, Iwona Łuszczewska-Sierakowska, Agata Wawrzyniak and Marcin Hałabis
The objective of the study was to analyse selected physical properties and chemical indicators of internal organs obtained from fattening pigs and Central European wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa). Each group consisted of 12 animals. The tongue, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys were examined for physical properties, basic chemical composition, macro- and micromineral content, and fatty acid profile. The atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were also determined. Pig offal was found to be a rich source of protein and collagen, and to contain large amounts of potassium and sodium. Liver had a high content of iron, zinc, and manganese. Pig liver and wild boar heart were characterised by favourable PUFA /SFA ratios (above 0.4%). In addition, the content of neutral and hypocholesterolemic acids (DFA ) and hypercholesterolemic acids (OFA ) in pig offal was comparable to that in pig meat. The results presented in this study provide an extensive evaluation of the nutritional quality of pig offal, which allows an increase in the scope of its use in the food industry, among others for production of offal products, including traditional and regional products that are increasingly demanded by consumers.
Elzbieta Kimak, Grzegorz Dzida, Dariusz Duma, Andrzej Prystupa, Magdalena Halabis, Aleksandra Kimak, Bartosz Zieba, Iwona Kaznowska-Bystryk and Agnieszka Kowalska
The aim of the study was to examine concentrations and relationships between melatonin levels assessed at 0:200 hrs and 0:700 hrs, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) assessed at 0:200 hrs and 0:700 hrs, and apolipoprotein (apo)AI, apoAII, apoB, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and NT-proBNP, in 27 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) (17 patients - with NYHA class II and 10 - with NYHA class III). In the study, Lipoproteins apoAI, apoAII, apoB, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were determined by way of immunonephelometric methods, serum melatonin concentration was measured by using a competitive enzyme immunoassay technique, while serum LPO concentration was measured by using Cayman’s Lipid Hydroperoxide Assay Kit. In the study, CHF patients without acute inflammatory response demonstrated a decreased concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apoAI, apoAII levels, but an increased concentration of NT-proBNP, hsCRP and LPO at night, and LPO at daytime; however, the concentration of LPO at 0:700 was lower than at 0:200. Pearson’s correlation test and multiple ridge stepwise regression showed that melatonin administered at night exerts an effect on the composition of apoAI and apoAII of HDL particles, and induces decreased LPO at 0:700, but has no effect upon NT-proBNP levels in patients with NYHA class II. However, in patients with NYHA class III, melatonin administered at night induces an increase in the content of apoAII and apoAI, which further decreases hsCRP, and this, together with the administered melatonin, brings about daytime decreases in NT-proBNP and hsCRP levels. The results indicated that the content of apoAII and apoAI in HDL particles and melatonin demonstrate an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and together, have a cardio-protective effect on patients with advanced CHF. Hence, the results support melatonin being a cardio-protective agent. These relationships, however, need to be confirmed in further studies.