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  • Author: Magdalena Grabczak x
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Open access

Tomasz Grenda, Magdalena Grabczak, Krzysztof Kwiatek and Andrzej Bober


Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens in food samples purchased from Polish producers. Material and Methods: The analyses were performed on 260 food samples collected in Lublin and Subcarpathian regions: 56 of smoked meat, 21 of pork meat, 20 of dairy products, 26 of vegetable and fruit preserves, 40 of ready-to-eat meals, 27 of fish preserves, and 70 of honey collected directly from apiaries. Results: C. botulinum strains were isolated from 2.3% (6/260) of samples and the isolates were classified as toxin types A (4/260) and B (2/260). C. perfringens strains were isolated from 14% (37/260) of samples. All the isolates were classified as toxin type A, 28 of them were able also to produce α toxin and 9 - β2 toxin. Conclusion: On the basis of the obtained results it could be suggested that risk assessment, especially regarding the entire honey harvesting process, should be provided in order to ensure the microbiological safety of the products to be consumed by infants and people with a weakened immune system.

Open access

Tomasz Grenda, Magdalena Grabczak, Magdalena Goldsztejn, Nina Kozieł, Krzysztof Kwiatek, Krystyna Pohorecka, Marta Skubida and Andrzej Bober


Introduction: The aim of this study was examination of honey samples collected from apiaries situated in all Polish provinces for occurrence of Clostridium spp., especially C. perfringens.

Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 240 honey samples (15 samples/province). Estimation of Clostridium titre, its cultures and C. perfringens isolate characterisation were performed according to the standard PN-R-64791:1994. A multiplex PCR method for detection of genes coding cpa (α toxin), cpb (β), cpb2 (β2), etx (ε), iap (ι), and cpe (enterotoxin) toxins was used.

Results: Clostridium spp. was noticed in 56% (136/240) of samples, and its titres ranged between 0.1 g and 0.001 g. Clostridium perfringens occurrence was evidenced in 27.5% (66/240) of samples. All isolates were classified to toxinotype A.

Conclusions: Evidence of a high number of positive samples with occurrence of Clostridium spp. indicates a potential risk to consumers’ health. The infective number of Clostridium spp. is unknown; however, the obtained results have shown that a risk assessment on the entire honey harvesting process should be made in order to ensure microbiological safety. Moreover, a detailed study should be undertaken on the antibiotic resistance of C. perfringens isolates from honey samples.