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Open access

Tomasz Grenda, Elżbieta Kukier, Magdalena Goldsztejn and Krzysztof Kwiatek

Abstract

A PCR-based procedure for detection of C. botulinum C and D in corn silage samples was validated. During the validation, method specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy were determined according to PN - EN ISO 16140:2004. Additionally, the specificity of the validated methods was proved by sequence analysis of PCR products obtained from examination of samples connected with botulism cases in cattle and mallard ducks. Limit of detection was estimated according to the Spearman - Kärber formula and expressed as LOD50. The obtained results showed that a 100% specificity was achieved. The sequencing of PCR products revealed 99% identity with sequences of bont/C and bont/D genes deposited in the GenBank. The sensitivity value ranged from 63.3% for C. botulinum type C to 75% for type D. The accuracy value varied from 72% for type C to 81.3% for type D. LOD50 was estimated at the levels of 0.272 (0. D 188-0395) spore/g for type C and 0.17 (0.1-0.289) spore/g for type D. The described PCR-based procedure enabled detection of C. botulinum C and D at the stage of liquid culture. This makes examination of feed samples possible without isolation process. The presented procedure could support the diagnosis of botulism by faster and specific laboratory examination process.

Open access

Elżbieta Kukier, Magdalena Goldsztejn, Tomasz Grenda and Krzysztof Kwiatek

Abstract

Clostridium perfringens isolates were obtained from pigs of five porcine farms in Poland. The presence of C. perfringens was detected in 92% of faeces samples and its number ranged from 1.0 x 101 cfu/g to 1.2 x 107 cfu/g. All the isolates belonged to type A and 48.7% of them contained cpb2 gene. The qualitative assessment of toxin genes expression by type A subtype β2 isolates showed expression of cpa gene in 100% of strains and cpb2 gene in 71% of the analysed strains. The isolate from one-day-old piglets demonstrated also the expression of cpa and cpb2 genes.

Open access

Tomasz Grenda, Elżbieta Kukier, Magdalena Goldsztejn, Krzysztof Kwiatek and Nina Kozieł

Abstract

As the test material mink feed with natural microflora was used. The analyses were conducted using Wrzosek and TPGY broth media, and Willis–Hobbs and Zeissler differential agar media. Wrzosek, Willis–Hobbs, and Zeissler media are described in Polish Standards approved by the National Standards Body in Poland and routinely used in detection of anaerobic bacteria in Poland. Detection and identification of C. botulinum was performed with a previously validated real-time PCR method based on ntnh gene detection, which is common in all C. botulinum toxotypes. The use of Wrzosek broth and Zeissler agar in routine analyses for detection and identification of C. botulinum was ineffective and limited. The obtained results showed the highest culturing process effectiveness in TPGY broth with 72 h incubation at 30°C and isolation on Willis–Hobbs agar. The real-time PCR method based on ntnh gene detection used in this study could be utilised as a supplementary tool to the mouse lethality assay.

Open access

Elżbieta Kukier, Magdalena Goldsztejn, Tomasz Grenda, Krzysztof Kwiatek, Dariusz Wasyl and Andrzej Hoszowski

Abstract

The aim of the study was the assessment of microbiological quality of compound feed used in Poland in 2007-2010. The examinations were done at all veterinary diagnostic laboratories operating in the frame of official laboratory system. The occurrence of Salmonella sp. and counts of Enterobacteriaceae family, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, total microorganisms, and fungi were assessed. Assays were done following Polish, European, and international standards. Percentage of contamination of compound feed for poultry, pigs, and cattle by Salmonella sp. ranged from 0% to 3.5%. The highest contamination level by Enterobacteriaceae bacteria were detected in wet petfood. No more than 106 cfu/g of aerobic bacteria and no more than 105 cfu/g of fungi were detected in the feed. The results of the study revealed that the microbiological quality of compound feed used in Poland in 2007-2010 was better than the quality of the feed used in 2003-2006.

Open access

Tomasz Grenda, Elżbieta Kukier, Zbigniew Sieradzki, Magdalena Goldsztejn and Krzysztof Kwiatek

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform an in-house validation of multiplex PCR method for C. botulinum detection in food and feed samples. The study was carried out on food and feed matrixes artificially contaminated by spores of C. botulinum reference strains. The following characteristic parameters for qualitative detection were estimated: limit of detection expressed as LOD50 according to the Spearman-Kärber formula, specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy according to the PN-EN ISO 16140:2004. The validated method showed high specificity. Specific PCR products were revealed only for DNA obtained from samples contaminated with C. botulinum spores. PCR inhibition was observed, especially during examination of contaminated feed. The calculated LOD50 for feed was nearly 10 times higher than for food. The implemented method enables to obtain test results during 3 d without time- consuming process of isolation and proving the ability of strains to produce botulinum toxins.

Open access

Elżbieta Kukier, Magdalena Goldsztejn, Tomasz Grenda, Krzysztof Kwiatek and Łukasz Bocian

Abstract

The study was conducted at all regional veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Feed materials were examined for Salmonella prevalence and contamination by Enterobacteriaceae, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total plate count, fungi, Clostridium sp., and Bacillus cereus. Assays were done following international and Polish standards used in food and feed microbiology. Salmonella sp. were most often detected in oil seeds. In most of the examined feed ingredients, the number of Enterobacteriaceae did not exceed 10 cfu/g. The contamination by aerobic bacteria ranged most often from 101to 107 cfu/g, and the highest mycological contamination was noted in cereal grains (108 cfu/g). The results showed that microbial contamination of feed materials in regard to Enterobacteriaceae, fungi, and total plate counts declined over the past years.

Open access

Raikhan Mustafina, Balgabay Maikanov, Jan Wiśniewski, Michał Tracz, Krzysztof Anusz, Tomasz Grenda, Elżbieta Kukier, Magdalena Goldsztejn and Krzysztof Kwiatek

Abstract

The paper presents the first results of a study on the contamination of honey produced in the Republic of Kazakhstan with C. botulinum spores known to pose a potential infection threat to infants. During microbiological analysis, culturing methods with TPGY, Willis-Hobbs agar, FAA agar connected with PCR, sequencing, and a mouse bioassay were used. The C. botulinum contamination rate of honey was relatively low as determined, at 0.91%. Nonetheless, the potential danger of the bacteria to childrens’ health should not be neglected

Open access

Tomasz Grenda, Magdalena Grabczak, Magdalena Goldsztejn, Nina Kozieł, Krzysztof Kwiatek, Krystyna Pohorecka, Marta Skubida and Andrzej Bober

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was examination of honey samples collected from apiaries situated in all Polish provinces for occurrence of Clostridium spp., especially C. perfringens.

Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 240 honey samples (15 samples/province). Estimation of Clostridium titre, its cultures and C. perfringens isolate characterisation were performed according to the standard PN-R-64791:1994. A multiplex PCR method for detection of genes coding cpa (α toxin), cpb (β), cpb2 (β2), etx (ε), iap (ι), and cpe (enterotoxin) toxins was used.

Results: Clostridium spp. was noticed in 56% (136/240) of samples, and its titres ranged between 0.1 g and 0.001 g. Clostridium perfringens occurrence was evidenced in 27.5% (66/240) of samples. All isolates were classified to toxinotype A.

Conclusions: Evidence of a high number of positive samples with occurrence of Clostridium spp. indicates a potential risk to consumers’ health. The infective number of Clostridium spp. is unknown; however, the obtained results have shown that a risk assessment on the entire honey harvesting process should be made in order to ensure microbiological safety. Moreover, a detailed study should be undertaken on the antibiotic resistance of C. perfringens isolates from honey samples.