The aim of this study was to determine the effect of SYM 2206 (a potent non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist) on the threshold for maximal electroshock (MEST)-induced seizures in mice. Electroconvulsions were produced in mice by means of a current (sinewave, 50 Hz, maximum 500 V, strength from 4 to 14 mA, 0.2-s stimulus duration, tonic hind limb extension taken as the endpoint) delivered via ear-clip electrodes. SYM 2206 administered systemically (i.p.), 30 min before the MEST test, at doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, did not alter the threshold for maximal electroconvulsions in mice. In contrast, SYM 2206 at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg significantly elevated the threshold for maximal electroconvulsions in mice (P<0.01 and P<0.001). Linear regression analysis of SYM 2206 doses and their corresponding threshold increases allowed for the determination of threshold increasing doses by 20% and 50% (TID20 and TID50 values) that elevate the threshold in drug-treated animals over the threshold in control animals. The experimentally derived TID20 and TID50 values for SYM 2206 were 4.25 and 10.56 mg/kg, respectively. SYM 2206 dose-dependently increased the threshold for MEST-induced seizures, suggesting the anticonvulsant action of the compound in this seizure model in mice.
The objective of the conducted analysis is the opinion of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO) and determination of the relationship between the level of knowledge concerning GMO, and evaluation of the safety of their use in industry and agriculture.
The scope of problems undertaken was elaborated based on the survey studies conducted on a group of 500 adolescents completing secondary schools from the Lublin Region, including 250 attending general profile secondary schools and 250 from agricultural technical schools. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey, using the questionnaire technique. The results of the study showed that the respondents perceived both positive and negative aspects of producing genetically modified (GM) products. These evaluations were significantly related with the respondents’ level of knowledge concerning GMO. The higher the level of knowledge, the more positive the evaluations of the adolescents concerning the cultivation and breeding of GMO, and more frequent indications that the consumption of products manufactured from these organisms is safe.
Sosnowsky’s hogweed was brought to Poland as a silage plant for cattle in the mid-20th century from the Caucasus. It was grown mainly in National Farms. However, the hogweed quickly spread across the natural environment. It is a highly invasive plant and possesses strong burning qualities. Every year many people suffer from its burns. The hogweed is also dangerous for animals. Being an invasive species, it displaces natural plant species of the native flora. It can threaten the flora and landscape of a particular area. The aim of the article is to present the problem including the frequency of occurrence of Sosnowsky’s hogweed in Poland, to show the negative effects for human health and the methods to fight it in its habitat.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of N-(m-bromoanilinomethyl)- p-isopropoxyphenylsuccinimide (BAM-IPPS - a new succinimide derivative) on the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: carbamazepine [CBZ], phenobarbital [PB], phenytoin [PHT] and valproate [VPA]) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced tonic seizure model. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via ear-clip electrodes. BAM-IPPS administered (i.p.) at a dose of 150 mg/kg significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice (P<0.05). Lower doses of BAM-IPPS (50 and 100 mg/kg) had no significant impact on the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice. Moreover, BAM-IPPS (100 mg/kg) did not significantly affect the anticonvulsant potency of CBZ, PB, PHT and VPA in the mouse MES model. BAM-IPPS elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice in a dosedependent manner. However, BAM-IPPS (100 mg/kg) did not affect the anticonvulsant action of various classical AEDs in the mouse MES model, making the combinations of BAM-IPPS with CBZ, PB, PHT and VPA neutral, from a preclinical point of view.
The objective of the conducted analyses is the evaluation of the level of knowledge concerning the scope of problems related with genetically modified organism (GMO) amongst adolescents completing secondary schools and the determination of the relationship between the level of this knowledge and the selected demographic traits of the adolescents examined.
The scope of problems undertaken was elaborated based on the survey conducted in a group of 500 adolescents from the Lublin Region completing secondary schools, including 250 adolescents attending General Secondary Schools and 250 adolescents attending Agricultural Secondary Technical Schools. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey, using a questionnaire.
The study showed that the majority of adolescents completing secondary schools were not interested at all in the scope of problems concerning GMO. A large part of the respondents (more than 2/5) had a very low level of knowledge of this problem. The greatest differences in the level of knowledge about GMO were observed in subgroups divided according to the type of school attended by the adolescents (General or Agricultural Technical). Respondents who attended General Secondary Schools showed a better knowledge of theoretical problems, whereas those who attended Secondary Agricultural Technical Schools were better familiarised with practical issues.