Research was carried out on fruits and seeds of Nymphaea and Nuphar taxa collected from Poland, Latvia and Estonia. The aim of the research was to establish diagnostic features which could enable identification of the examined taxa on the basis of the fruit and seed structure and creating a key to identify them. The examined organs were observed through an optic microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). New diagnostic features were discovered: spotting of fresh pericarp, the range of the fruit shape coefficient, the colour of the rays in the fruit stigma disc, the thickness of the seed testa, ribs in the seeds, and occurrence of the “puzzle shaped” cells on the surface of the testa. The discovered features were used in the taxonomic characteristics.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of selected lifestyle factors on self-rated health status in working age population. Materials and Methods: The study population derived from the national Polish representative WOBASZ study. The sample consisted of 1222 randomly selected residents of two Polish districts, aged 20-64 years (52.3% women and 47.7% men). We analyzed four health-related behaviors as lifestyle factors that made up the lifestyle index: non-smoking, adequate fruit and vegetable intake, healthy weight, and sufficient physical activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to investigate the impact of lifestyle on self-rated health. Results: The findings revealed that 4.2, 17.6, 37 and 35.2% of women and 6.4, 19.9, 36.5 and 34.1% of men had the lifestyle index score of 0, 1, 2, 3 points, respectively. Only 6.1% of women and 3.1% of men met all the four criteria of a healthy lifestyle (score 4). Self-rated health was regarded as poor/fair, good or very good by 39.1, 54.3, 6.6% of women and 31.6, 60.7, 7.7% of men, respectively. Poor/fair self-rated health was strongly associated with obesity both in the male and female population. Among men with the lifestyle index score of 0 points, the risk of poor/fair self-rated health was 3.5 times as high (OR = 3.52; 95% CI: 1.36-9.12) as in men with the index score of 4. For women with the scores of 3, 2, 1, and 0, the risk of poor/fair self-rated health was nearly three (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.5-5.56), four (OR = 3.61; 95% CI: 1.88-6.93), six (OR = 5.93; 95% CI: 2.88-12.21) and seven times (OR = 6.67; 95% CI: 1.97-22.51) as high as for those with the lifestyle index score of 4. Conclusions: There is a need for implementing more effective health promotion interventions in the society, with special regard to weight reduction programs.