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Lubosława Nowaczyk, Paweł Nowaczyk and Magdalena Banach-Szott

Relationship between Technological Characters in Capsicum SPP. Soft-Flesh Forms

The present research involved the evaluation of relationships between technological characters of soft-flesh fruit in the lines derived from the hybrid Capsicum frutescens L. × C. annuum L. The evaluation was performed in groups of genotypes which differed in their fruit weight and pericarp thickness. The material researched was made up of the pericarp from which placenta with seeds was removed and the puree obtained as a result of whole fruit crushing. The analysis of the content of capsaicinoids was made using the HPLC method. The content of capsaicin was in each case higher than that of dihydrocapsaicin. There were observed highly significantly positive correlations between the average fruit weight and the wall thickness in the genotypes of a higher level of these characters, namely in the groups over 20 g (fruit weight) and over 3 mm (wall thickness). In these groups the content of capsaicinoids was negatively correlated with the average fruit weight. The significance of this relationship was confirmed in the genotypes of a higher fruit weight as compared with the content of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicine in the puee. The relationships between the capsaicinoids researched were more stable in the genotypes of a higher fruit weight and demonstrating a higher pericarp wall thickness.

Open access

Lubosława Nowaczyk and Magdalena Banach-Szott

Summary

Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin concentration was evaluated using the HPLC method in the whole fruit, pericarp, and purée obtained by rubbing fruit through a strainer, purée obtained by fruit expressing, and in the waste following the two above processes. The highest content of each compound was noted in purée and the lowest one in pericarp and waste. Concentration of capsaicin was higher than concentration of dihydrocapsaicin in all of the analysed material. Reciprocal relations between contents of two compounds ranged from 1.4 to 5.3. Capsaicinoid contents in purée obtained by rubbing plus in the waste of the process and in the expressed purée plus the waste of the process were highly similar. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin contents in purée obtained as a result of mechanical separation of soft tissue from the inedible fruit parts was significantly higher than in pericarp and stable, regardless of the processing method.

Open access

Bożena Dębska, Magdalena Banach-Szott, Ewa Rosa and Jarosław Pakuła

Wpływ Zanieczyszczenia Gleb Wybranymi WWA Na Skład Frakcyjny Materii Organicznej

Open access

Erika Tobiašová, Vladimír Šimanský, Bożena Dębska and Magdalena Banach-Szott

In this study, differences in soil structure in different ecosystems (forest, meadow, urban, and agro-ecosystem) and soil types (Haplic Chernozem, Haplic Luvisol, Haplic Stagnosol) with a dependence on the influence of quantity and quality of soil organic matter and the particle size distribution on fraction composition of soil aggregates were compared. Soils had different productive capacity and particle size distribution. The most favourable soil structure was in the agro-ecosystem, then in forest, meadow, and urban ecosystem. The worst soil structure was in Haplic Stagnosol. An important indicator in assessing of ecosystem influence, water-resistant macro-aggregates of the 0.5-1 mm size fraction seems to be. This fraction was the only one which was statistically significantly influenced by the ecosystem, and also the only one which was not statistically significantly influenced by the soil type. This fraction also was not influenced either with the quantity and quality of soil organic matter, or with the particle size distribution. The quantity of soil organic matter is reflected in relation to the fractional composition of dry-sieved aggregates and its quality in relation to waterresistant aggregates. Large fractions of water-resistant macro-aggregates were in positive correlation with C : N ratio, the amount of extracted humus substances, or stability and quality of humic acids; while smaller fractions were in negative correlation just with these parameters. Clay and silt fractions had a positive influence on waterresistant macro-aggregates formation, while sand fraction had negative and vice versa.

Open access

Lubosława Nowaczyk, Magdalena Banach-Szott, Dorota Olszewska and Paweł Nowaczyk

Summary

In the research on induced androgenesis, eight groups of plants, the progeny of interspecific hybrid of Capsicum frutescens L. x C. annuum L., were used. Half of them were standard hard-flesh forms, while the others have represented SS or Ss genotype conditioning the soft flesh of ripe fruit. Anthers from the plants of six groups produced mixoploid callus and the DNA content ranged from 1C to 16C. Three groups formed embryos which converted into plants. The total number of regenerants was 19, included both androgenic haploids (13) and diploids (6). The results did not allow to present the simple relationship between the physiological feature of soft-flesh and the effectiveness of androgenesis. Pungent, soft-flesh genotypes appeared as a poor responsive in anther culture. The R2 and R3 generation of two soft-flesh diploids, evaluated in two-year experiments, showed full phenotypic uniformity, proofing the androgenic origin of diploids. These DH lines were different with regard to capsaicinoid profiles. The content of capsaicinoids ranged from 0.056 to 2.170 and from 0.019 to 1.610 g*kg-1 for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively. The highest concentration of the compounds was observed in the placenta. Although the androgenic effectiveness was not fully satisfactory, the doubled haploid technology can be used for the rapid genetic stabilization of soft-flesh Capsicum spp. recombinants and the special attention should be paid to the spontaneous androdiploids.