Pollution of the environment components in many cases presents unacceptable risks to human health and the environment. Risk analysis is one of the tools which help to find a socially acceptable level of the environmental quality. Evaluation of the environmental impacts can be the base for the optimal spatial arrangement and functional use of territory - landscape optimization. In Slovakia, LANDEP methodology based on the principles of sustainable development, is very often used for landscape planning. The paper deals with environmental risk assessment of components of environment (air, water, soil, waste, etc.). The results are used as a base for design of the optimal spatial setting and functional utilization of the land - landscape optimization.