Czech Approach to Implementation of Ecological Network
An ecological network in the landscape consists of all existing and proposed landscape segments of ecological significance that can contribute to the conservation of landscape biodiversity. The concept of creation of territorial systems of ecological stability applied in the Czech Republic corresponds to the latest landscape ecological knowledge and landscape planning procedures used abroad. Biocorridors interconnect biocentres thus enable migration, interactions and permeability of landscape for organisms. Unlike biocentres, they don't need to provide for a permanent existence of all species of the represented communities. Thanks to the interconnection of biocentres by means of biocorridors there is an ecological network forming in the landscape. Development of the local biocorridor Vracov and the regional biocorridor Věstonice in south Moravia is presented.
Vascular Plants Distribution as a Tool for Adaptive Forest Management of Floodplain Forests in the Dyje River Basin
The study is based on a full floristic inventory of floodplain forests in South Moravia along the upper part of the Dyje River (Forest district Valtice). The study area is located in the Dolní Morava Biosphere Reserve and includes several Sites of Community Importance within Natura 2000. The aim of the inventory was to analyze diversity of herb and woody species occuring in the study area, including both native protected and threatened species, and invasive species. The study area was divided into segments. A segment represented the smallest unit of spatial forest division - "forest stand part". The species were recorded into a special scratch-list. Altogether, 656 plant species were found. The floristic database has been integrated with GIS. Maps of distribution of selected plant species or groups of plants were produced. On the basis of geographical visualization of the above mentioned results we identified areas with a high diversity of all species and endangered species. The results may be used as a base for adaptive forest and environmental management.
The paved (tarmac) roads had been constructed on Soqotra island over the last 15 years. The vegetation along the roads was disturbed and the erosion started immediately after the disturbance caused by the road construction. Our assumption is that biotechnical measurements should prevent the problems caused by erosion and improve stabilization of road edges. The knowledge of plant species which are able to grow in unfavourable conditions along the roads is important for correct selection of plants used for outplanting. The vegetation succession was observed using phytosociological relevés as a tool of recording and mapping assambblages of plants species along the roads as new linear structures in the landscape. Data from phytosociological relevés were analysed and the succession was characterised in different altitudes. The results can help us to select group of plants (especially shrubs and trees), which are suitable to be used as stabilizing green mantle in various site conditions and for different purposes (anti-erosional, ornamental, protection against noise or dust, etc.).
This paper studies non-indigenous dwarf pine stands in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains, from the perspective of their spatial and genetic relations to slope phenomena of deformation character. The paper contains a typology of regional slope deformations, data on their spatial distribution and specific properties, including risk estimates of their origination or further development in case of potential future dwarf pine stand clearings, as well as a three-stage categorization of dwarf pine stands based on this tendency. The results were processed using data from literary sources, map documents and aerial photos, as well as an extensive field survey. Three main types of slope deformations were distinguished on sites with highly variable geomorphological features - extensive complex phenomena with numerous subforms, linear debris flows and local shallow landslides. The acquired data show that while dwarf pine stands have no great effect on the development of large slope phenomena, they play a more significant reinforcement role in the prevention of smaller surface deformations, the origination of which is predominantly related to steeper slopes. The results of this study can serve for future decision making on the management of dwarf pine stands
This paper presents an evaluation of full-area floristic mapping of floodplain forest in Tvrdonice forest district (Židlochovice Forest Enterprise) based on a single forest stand inventory. The study area encompasses 2,200 ha of forests, where 769 segments were inventoried, and 46,886 single records about presence of vascular plant species were catalogued. We found 612 species (incl. subspecies and hybrids), out of which 514 were herbs, 98 were woody plants, 113 were endangered species and 170 were adventive species. The average area of a segment is 2.86 ha. The mean number of species per segment is 60.97 in a range of 4-151.
The landscape differentiation on seed regions is used in the Czech forestry industry for purposes of seed transfers. The seed regions are created for main commercial tree species and the rules for transfer among these regions are described. The geobiocoenological landscape differentiation and differences among tree species populations were used as main approaches. The same principle is used for Boswellia seed regions differentiation on Socotra island. Eight species of Boswellia genus were determined on the island, all species being endemic. The differentiation is based on Boswellia populations field survey. All populations were described in morphological signs. The vegetation zones and geomorphological differentiation were also taken into account. The result is a map of seed regions for every Boswellia species on Socotra island presented in the article.
This paper presents an evaluation of full-area floristic investigation of floodplain forests in Soutok forest district (Židlochovice Forest State Enterprise) based on an individual forest stand inventory. The study area encompasses 5103 ha of forests, where 1186 segments were inventoried, and 71 223 single records about presence of vascular plant species were done. We found 761 taxa (species, subspecies and hybrids), out of which 655 were herbs, 106 woody plants, 156 were endangered species and 177 adventive species. The average area of a segment was 4.3 ha. The mean number of species per segment was 64.42 in a range of 4–180.
Within the area of Central Europe, and especially in the Czech Republic (and former Czechoslovakia), geobiocoenological landscape differentiation has been applied for more than 40 years to create a spatial model of the natural (potential) condition of geobiocoenoses in the landscape. Because long-term objective of geobiocoenology is to contribute to the creation of harmonic cultural landscape by gradual development of a comprehensive system of groundworks for sustainable landscape use, and as Mendel University experts work in various countries, adaptions of geobiocoenology were used also outside Europe, in tropical areas. Examples of such a work could be shown on islands such as Socotra (belonging politically to Yemen), Tasmania, and Cuba.
Ancient coppice woodlands are coppice-originated forest stands with a long-term continual development, and with the preserved typical natural and historic elements of old sprout forests. Prominent natural elements in the ancient coppice woodlands are namely old coppice stools. There is, in scientific literature, lack of information about features of ancient coppice stools. Therefore, our contribution aims to describe shape and form of ancient coppice stools, including the most important microhabitat of coppice woodlands – dendrothelms. Based on field survey of 20 localities of important coppice woodlands we recorded 135 ancient coppice stools of 13 tree species and a total of 80 dendrothelms in 9 tree species. Basic features of ancient coppice stools and dendrothlems were measured and evaluated.
Ancient coppice woodlands are coppice-originated forest stands with a long-term continual development, and with the preserved typical natural and historic elements of old sprout forests. Prominent natural elements in the ancient coppice woodlands are namely old coppice stools. There is, in scientific literature, lack of information about features of ancient coppice stools. Therefore, our contribution aims to describe shape and form of ancient coppice stools, including the most important microhabitat of coppice woodlands - dendrothelms. Based on field survey of 20 localities of important coppice woodlands we recorded 135 ancient coppice stools of 13 tree species and a total of 80 dendrothelms in 9 tree species. Basic features of ancient coppice stools and dendrothlems were measured and evaluated.