Jacek Karamon, Jacek Sroka, Tomasz Cencek, Maciej Kochanowski and Joanna Dąbrowska
The aim of the study was to estimate the effectiveness of intestinal scraping technique (IST) in the detection of Echinococcus multilocularis. The experimental assessment of the limit of detection and comparison with “gold standard” (sedimentation and counting technique - SCT) was also performed. Samples of fox small intestines experimentally enriched with known numbers of E. multilocularis tapeworms, were used. Twenty four samples containing 10, 30, 60, and 90 E. multilocularis tapeworms were prepared. Moreover, in order to compare IST with SCT, 127 intestines of foxes were examined using both methods. The limit of detection was estimated at 30 E. multilocularis tapeworms per sample of the intestine. Moreover, mean number of Echinococcus found by IST were several dozen times lower than the real content of these tapeworms in the samples (on average only 2 to 3.2% of worms were recovered). Among 127 intestinal samples examined with the use of two methods, eight samples (8.2%) were positive by SCT and only two (1.6%) when IST was used. A relatively high limit of detection estimated experimentally in the first part of the study, as well as, the results obtained in field investigations showed clearly that IST method could significantly decrease the reliability of the results of investigations, especially carried out in regions where a very low prevalence of E.multilocularis occurs or in countries, which want to demonstrate that they are free from this parasite.
Maciej Kochanowski, Jacek Karamon, Joanna Dąbrowska, Arkadiusz Dors, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors and Tomasz Cencek
Introduction: The aim of study was to estimate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections in pigs in Poland and evaluate the influence of factors related to the production system on the infection intensity.
Material and Methods: A total of 70 pig farms of all Polish provinces, differing in the herd size and production system, were selected for the study. Fresh faecal samples were collected from all age groups: suckling piglets, weaners, fatteners, and lactating sows. Moreover, data were obtained regarding the size of the herd, the use of paddock and all-in/all-out system, the presence of diarrhoea, and the type of flooring.
Results: Parasite eggs or oocysts were detected in 57 of the 70 examined pig farms. Oesphagostomum spp. eggs were found in the largest number of farms (68.6%). Moreover, coccidia (42.9%), Ascaris suum (28.6%), Trichuris suis (21.4%), and Strongyloides spp. (11.4%) were detected. The highest prevalence of coccidia and Strongyloides spp. was found in suckling piglets, A. suum and T. suis in fatteners, and Oesphagostomum spp. in sows. Higher prevalence of parasites was detected in small farms than in medium and large farms, except the prevalence of coccidia, which was the highest in medium farms. Simultaneous infection with several parasites was more often detected than with one parasite. Odds ratio of parasites occurrence was higher in farms with paddock and litter floor and in farms which do not use all-in/all-out system.
Conclusion: Relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasites was found in pigs in Poland. Moreover, specific distribution of parasites in different age groups and farms of different size was observed. Influence of breeding factors on parasite prevalence was identified.
Jacek Karamon, Maciej Kochanowski, Tomasz Cencek, Magdalena Bartoszewicz and Paweł Kusyk
The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in raccoons with particular regard to zoonotic parasites. Fifty-five raccoons, hunted or found dead on roads, were examined. The small and large intestines were collected from all raccoons and, additionally, the stomach was collected from 43 animals. The samples were examined with the use of sedimentation and counting technique. The intestines and stomach were examined separately. Samples of raccoon faeces were collected from their environment localised in Słubice district, Lubuskie province (Poland). The samples were collected once a month in 2012. In total, 154 faecal samples were obtained and examined with the use of McMaster flotation technique. The following parasites were detected in the intestinal and stomach contents: tapeworms Mesocestoides sp. (67.3%), Echinostomatidae flukes (34.5%), and nematodes Capillaria sp. (25.5%). Moreover, Acanthocephala were found in the intestines of three raccoons. The highest intensity of infection were observed in case of Mesocestoides sp. Mesocestoides sp. and Echinostomatidae were found statistically more often in the intestines than in the stomach. In the case of these two parasites, there was positive correlation between the intensity of infection in the intestines and the presence of the same parasites in the stomach. Moreover, significantly higher prevalence and intensity of Mesocestoides sp. in males than in females were also observed. Faecal samples contained Baylisascaris procyonis eggs (mean 60 epg). These eggs were found in three samples collected in November and December. Furthermore, in some faecal samples eggs of flukes, Capillaria sp., Mesocystoides sp., and coccidian oocysts were found. It is one of rare reports concerning Baylisascaris procyonis in Poland confirming the presence of this dangerous parasite in Polish raccoon population.
Jacek Karamon, Maciej Kochanowski, Joanna Dąbrowska, Jacek Sroka, Mirosław Różycki, Ewa Bilska-Zając and Tomasz Cencek
The aim of the study was to estimate the current prevalence of E. multilocularis in selected populations of red foxes in Poland and to evaluate the changes in prevalence of this parasite by comparison with the results obtained in the same area during earlier surveillance. The investigations were performed in the area of four Polish provinces: 2 eastern/south-eastern (Lubelskie and Podkarpackie) and 2 south-western (Śląskie and Opolskie). Five hundred red foxes coming from the investigated areas were examined between 2013 and 2014 to estimate the current situation in selected provinces. Moreover, 550 red foxes from the same areas examined between 2007 and 2013 were used for comparison of differences in E. multilocularis prevalences in time. Intestines were examined with the use of the sedimentation and counting technique. Among 500 foxes examined in the current study, 118 were positive for E. multilocularis. There were differences in prevalence between individual provinces: Podkarpackie Province - 54.6%, Lubelskie Province - 18.9%, Śląskie Province - 11.7%, and Opolskie Province - 3.9%. Statistical analysis demonstrated that in most cases there were no differences in prevalence between the current results and the results from previous studies. Only in Opolskie Province was a statistically significant increase observed between 2010 and 2014. A stable degree of infection in the region with high prevalence of this parasite was demonstrated. However, a significant increase in the region with very low prevalence of E. multilocularis points out the necessity to monitor this infection during the coming years to control the progress of the disease
Joanna Dąbrowska, Jacek Karamon, Maciej Kochanowski, Jacek Sroka, Jolanta Zdybel and Tomasz Cencek
Tritrichomonas foetus is a protozoan parasite that has been traditionally identified as a cause of reproductive tract disease in cattle and gastrointestinal tract infection in cats. Moreover, T. foetus is also well known as a commensal of the nasal cavity, intestines, and stomach in swine. In this review we describe T. foetus as a pathogen dangerous to more than one animal host, diagnostic and taxonomic aspects of this infection, and the extent to which isolates from different hosts share genetic identity.
Jacek Sroka, Zygmunt Giżejewski, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Krzysztof Stojecki, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Jacek Dutkiewicz, Tomasz Cencek, Jacek Karamon, Violetta Zając, Paweł Kusyk, Joanna Dąbrowska and Maciej Kochanowski
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible influence of beavers on the contamination of lake water with zoonotic parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., with respect to the risk to human health. A total of 79 water samples were taken around the habitats of beavers from 14 localities situated in the recreational Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland). Water was sampled in the spring and autumn seasons, at different distances from beavers’ lodges (0-2, 10, 30, and 50 m). The samples were examined for the presence of (oo)cysts of zoonotic protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and by nested and real time PCR. By DFA, the presence of Giardia cysts was found in 36 samples (45.6%) and the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 26 samples (32.9%). Numbers of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and summarised (oo)cysts of both parasites showed a significant variation depending on locality. The numbers of Giardia cysts significantly decreased with the distance from beavers’ lodges while the numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts did not show such dependence. The amount of Giardia cysts in samples collected in spring was approximately 3 times higher than in autumn. Conversely, a larger number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples collected in autumn than in spring. By PCR, Giardia DNA was found in 38 samples (48.1%) whereas DNA of Cryptosporidium was found in only 7 samples (8.9%). Eleven Giardia isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or sequencing which evidenced their belonging to zoonotic assemblages: A (3 isolates) and B (8 isolates). In conclusion, water in the vicinity of beavers’ lodges in the tested region was markedly contaminated with (oo)cysts of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which confirms the potential role of beavers as a reservoir of these parasites and indicates a need for implementation of appropriate preventive measures to protect tourists’ health.