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Maciej J. Nowak

Abstract

The procedure of assessing the project’s influence on the environment during which, inter alia, the compliance of the implemented project (eg concerning technical infrastructure, linear investments, or processes that affect the forms of nature) with the requirements of the environmental protection is verified, constitutes an environmental management instrument. Especially the environmental authorities leading or consulting this procedure may apply different limits and concepts of the action. At the same time they are limited by legal determinants. The aim of this article is to identify the most significant organizational problems that have arisen during the application of this procedure at the level of regional directors of environmental protection throughout the country. As a part of the study to fulfill the aim of the research, an analysis of all cases conducted by them was carried out. This led to a dispute and a consequence in the form of an appeal against the issued decision on the environmental conditions and the outcome of the appeal by the Director General of Environmental Protection. This article has verified the substantive scope of the issues, the ways to resolve conflicts and their impact on the regional and national development. Based upon these results, the proposals for changes of the environmental management system have been formulated.

Open access

Andrzej Nowak, Maciej J. Nowak and Krystyna Cybulska

Abstract

Microorganisms, usually invisible for us, accompany us always and everywhere. Often we do not realize how decisive its impact on our lives is, how much we use their presence, which of our troubles are the result of their actions, and also how surprising effects result from their activity. Microorganisms also very often play a decisive role in the development of societies, politics and history. One of the most spectacular interventions of micro-organisms in human history include the example of a false “oil fever” that exploded in Australia in the second half of the nineteenth century. It was even more significant to redirect Europe's history in the new direction as a result of the “black death” epidemic in the fourteenth century. Microorganisms have created social conditions for the transition to the next epoch - renaissance, which forms the basis of today's shape. Because of the microorganisms J.F. Kennedy could have been in the 1960 President of the United States of America and to direct her development in the new direction and to stop Khrushchev's expansion into the second hemisphere. Microorganisms, not leaders and generals, won battles and wars. It was Rikketsia prowazeki, not the genius of the opponents, that broke Napoleon's power in Europe. Microorganisms fight disease, improving quality of life and prolonging its period. They allowed to control rabies and numerous infectious diseases. In the economy for the cause of microorganisms, powerful monopolies fell. Bacteria were also used to protect civilians in Poland during World War II. There are many similar stories to tell, stories in which microorganisms play an essential role. But would these stories be about microorganisms only? Or perhaps about people who were fascinated by the microscopic world of microbes discovered his secrets, meaning and ... beauty.