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Maciej J. Mendecki, Krzysztof Jochymczyk, Wacław M. Zuberek and Radosława Tomaszewska

Abstract

Seismic and geodetic studies were carried out before, during, and after underground exploitation of a coal bed in Katowice - Kleofas Coal Mine, located in the Upper Silesia Coal Basin, Poland. Development of a subsidence trough was completed approximately 3 months after passage of a longwall exploitation in the coal seam. This was the time required for the subsidence trough to appear on the surface, which was confirmed by levelling measurements. Sharp changes in the elastic parameters were observed on each profile during subsidence trough development. This observation can result from changing tension and compression forces caused by increase and/or decrease of the elastic parameters of the rock mass. After completion of subsidence trough development, the rock mass appeared to return to its isotropic state and the observed changes ceased. Some minor fluctuations were noted, but they probably resulted from changes in groundwater levels, which might have affected the measured parameters.

Open access

Maciej J. Mendecki, Barbara Bieta, Mateusz Mateuszów and Paweł Suszka

Abstract

This study compares the HVSR technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio), based on seismic event records, and the HVSRN technique (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio of Noise) using seismic noise registrations. Both methods allow us to study the amplification phenomenon of a horizontal component of seismic waves when the waves reach loose sediments in subsurface layers. The seismic data were measured at a three-component single seismic station located in the village of Tarnówek, in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District. The results of the study demonstrate that average HVSRN and HVSR maxima can be distinguished: for periods approximately 3.78 s (H/V = 6.2) and 3.969 s (H/V = 8.98) respectively. The evaluated share of the Rayleigh wave component in the recorded values was β = 0.58 and it can be suggested that the Love wave share in surface motion was insignificant. The Love wave share remains unknown.

Open access

Jacek Szczygieł and Maciej J. Mendecki

Abstract

Traverses (polygons) from two caves have been tested: Wielka Śnieżna Cave System (2858 vectors) and Śnieżna Studnia cave (742). The box counting technique was applied to evaluate the fractal analysis of spatial orientation of traverses. The polygonal survey of Wielka Śnieżna Cave, Śnieżna Studnia and both caves merged together have a fractal geometry. It may be concluded that these caves are close to the full recognition of passages forming by a hydrological system and they could have close relation with geological structures. The usual explanation of fractal dimension D higher than 1 indicates that caves with such dimension fill more space than those with ideal dimension of 1.00 (for example a straight line), and the geological constraints limit the dimension to be lower than 2 (Verbovsek 2007). It may suggest that systems can be developped into more complicated passages in future. The fact that both caves merged together also have showed fractal geometry indicates that they are belonging to the same hydrological system. It was noticed that D-value of merged caves is slightly larger than individual cave. It can be explained by “occupying” more space in rock mass.