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Open access

Arnaud Carrara, Pasi Kolari, Maarten Op de Beeck, Nicola Arriga, Daniel Berveiller, Sigrid Dengel, Andreas Ibrom, Lutz Merbold, Corinna Rebmann, Simone Sabbatini, Penelope Serrano-Ortíz and Sébastien C. Biraud

Abstract

Solar radiation is a key driver of energy and carbon fluxes in natural ecosystems. Radiation measurements are essential for interpreting ecosystem scale greenhouse gases and energy fluxes as well as many other observations performed at ecosystem stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS). We describe and explain the relevance of the radiation variables that are monitored continuously at ICOS ecosystem stations and define recommendations to perform these measurements with consistent and comparable accuracy. The measurement methodology and instruments are described including detailed technical specifications. Guidelines for instrumental set up as well as for operation, maintenance and data collection are defined considering both ICOS scientific objectives and practical operational constraints. For measurements of short-wave (solar) and long wave (infrared) radiation components, requirements for the ICOS network are based on available well-defined state-of-the art standards (World Meteorological Organization, International Organization for Standardization). For photosynthetically active radiation measurements, some basic instrumental requirements are based on the performance of commercially available sensors. Since site specific conditions and practical constraints at individual ICOS ecosystem stations may hamper the applicability of standard requirements, we recommend that ICOS develops mid-term coordinated actions to assess the effective level of uncertainties in radiation measurements at the network scale.

Open access

Maarten Op de Beeck, Bert Gielen, Lutz Merbold, Edward Ayres, Penelope Serrano-Ortiz, Manuel Acosta, Marian Pavelka, Leonardo Montagnani, Mats Nilsson, Leif Klemedtsson, Caroline Vincke, Anne De Ligne, Christine Moureaux, Sara Marańon-Jimenez, Matthew Saunders, Simone Mereu and Lukas Hörtnagl

Abstract

The Integrated Carbon Observation System is a pan-European research infrastructure providing standardized, long-term observations of greenhouse gas concentrations and earth-atmosphere greenhouse gas interactions. The terrestrial component of Integrated Carbon Observation System comprises a network of monitoring stations in terrestrial ecosystems where the principal activity is the measurement of ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases and energy by means of the eddy covariance technique. At each station a large set of ancillary variables needed for the interpretation of observed fluxes and for process studies is additionally monitored. This set includes a subset of variables that describe the thermal and moisture conditions of the soil and which are here conveniently referred to as soil-meteorological variables: soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, water table depth, and soil heat flux density. This paper describes the standard methodology that has been developped for the monitoring of these variables at the ecosystem stations.

Open access

Matthew Saunders, Sigrid Dengel, Pasi Kolari, Christine Moureaux, Leonardo Montagnani, Eric Ceschia, Nuria Altimir, Ana López-Ballesteros, Sara Marańon-Jimenez, Manuel Acosta, Katja Klumpp, Bert Gielen, Maarten Op de Beeck, Lukas Hörtnagl, Lutz Merbold, Bruce Osborne, Thomas Grünwald, Dominique Arrouays, Hakima Boukir, Nicolas Saby, Giacomo Nicolini, Dario Papale and Michael Jones

Abstract

There are many factors that influence ecosystem scale carbon, nitrogen and greenhouse gas dynamics, including the inherent heterogeneity of soils and vegetation, anthropogenic management interventions, and biotic and abiotic disturbance events. It is important therefore, to document the characteristics of the soils and vegetation and to accurately report all management activities, and disturbance events to aid the interpretation of collected data, and to determine whether the ecosystem either amplifies or mitigates climate change. This paper outlines the importance of assessing both the spatial and temporal variability of soils and vegetation and to report all management events, the import or export of C or N from the ecosystem, and the occurrence of biotic/abiotic disturbances at ecosystem stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System, a pan-European research infrastructure.

Open access

Daniela Franz, Manuel Acosta, Núria Altimir, Nicola Arriga, Dominique Arrouays, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Edward Ayres, Ana López-Ballesteros, Mireille Barbaste, Daniel Berveiller, Sébastien Biraud, Hakima Boukir, Timothy Brown, Christian Brümmer, Nina Buchmann, George Burba, Arnaud Carrara, Allessandro Cescatti, Eric Ceschia, Robert Clement, Edoardo Cremonese, Patrick Crill, Eva Darenova, Sigrid Dengel, Petra D’Odorico, Gianluca Filippa, Stefan Fleck, Gerardo Fratini, Roland Fuß, Bert Gielen, Sébastien Gogo, John Grace, Alexander Graf, Achim Grelle, Patrick Gross, Thomas Grünwald, Sami Haapanala, Markus Hehn, Bernard Heinesch, Jouni Heiskanen, Mathias Herbst, Christine Herschlein, Lukas Hörtnagl, Koen Hufkens, Andreas Ibrom, Claudy Jolivet, Lilian Joly, Michael Jones, Ralf Kiese, Leif Klemedtsson, Natascha Kljun, Katja Klumpp, Pasi Kolari, Olaf Kolle, Andrew Kowalski, Werner Kutsch, Tuomas Laurila, Anne de Ligne, Sune Linder, Anders Lindroth, Annalea Lohila, Bernhard Longdoz, Ivan Mammarella, Tanguy Manise, Sara Maraňón Jiménez, Giorgio Matteucci, Matthias Mauder, Philip Meier, Lutz Merbold, Simone Mereu, Stefan Metzger, Mirco Migliavacca, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Christine Moureaux, David Nelson, Eiko Nemitz, Giacomo Nicolini, Mats B. Nilsson, Maarten Op de Beeck, Bruce Osborne, Mikaell Ottosson Löfvenius, Marian Pavelka, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Mari Pihlatie, Andrea Pitacco, Radek Pokorný, Jukka Pumpanen, Céline Ratié, Corinna Rebmann, Marilyn Roland, Simone Sabbatini, Nicolas P.A. Saby, Matthew Saunders, Hans Peter Schmid, Marion Schrumpf, Pavel Sedlák, Penelope Serrano Ortiz, Lukas Siebicke, Ladislav Šigut, Hanna Silvennoinen, Guillaume Simioni, Ute Skiba, Oliver Sonnentag, Kamel Soudani, Patrice Soulé, Rainer Steinbrecher, Tiphaine Tallec, Anne Thimonier, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Patrik Vestin, Gaëlle Vincent, Caroline Vincke, Domenico Vitale, Peter Waldner, Per Weslien, Lisa Wingate, Georg Wohlfahrt, Mark Zahniser and Timo Vesala

Abstract

Research infrastructures play a key role in launching a new generation of integrated long-term, geographically distributed observation programmes designed to monitor climate change, better understand its impacts on global ecosystems, and evaluate possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. The pan-European Integrated Carbon Observation System combines carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG; CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O) observations within the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems and oceans. High-precision measurements are obtained using standardised methodologies, are centrally processed and openly available in a traceable and verifiable fashion in combination with detailed metadata. The Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem station network aims to sample climate and land-cover variability across Europe. In addition to GHG flux measurements, a large set of complementary data (including management practices, vegetation and soil characteristics) is collected to support the interpretation, spatial upscaling and modelling of observed ecosystem carbon and GHG dynamics. The applied sampling design was developed and formulated in protocols by the scientific community, representing a trade-off between an ideal dataset and practical feasibility. The use of open-access, high-quality and multi-level data products by different user communities is crucial for the Integrated Carbon Observation System in order to achieve its scientific potential and societal value.