Małgorzata Włodarczyk, Hanna Siwek, Anna Buchwał and Edyta Rafacz
The purpose of the paper was to assess the changes in the concentration of selected metals in the bottom sediment and interstitial water of the River Chotla in northwest Poland. The research was conducted on the river section flowing through Zaspy Małe and a salmonid fish breeding farm. Samples of water and bottom sediment were taken in four control and measurement points, located above and below the village and on a backwater above the trouteries and below the fish breeding ponds. The pH and the concentration of the metals potassium, iron, calcium, manganese and zinc were determined in the water and sediment samples. The lowest concentrations of the metals were found in the samples collected above and below Zaspy Małe, while the highest concentrations of metals in the water and sediment were found in the samples taken in the backwater, above the fish breeding ponds. Exceptions were calcium and potassium, with the highest concentrations of metals in the water being found in the samples taken below the fish breeding ponds. The content of metals in sediments of the analysed section of the River Chotla was mainly determined by the content of organic matter, which varied as it is dependent on water accumulation processes and the operation of nearby fishery facilities. The slightly alkaline pH facilitated long-lasting accumulation of metals in sediments.
Małgorzata Kikowska, Agata Włodarczyk, Anna Stochmal, Jerzy Żuchowski and Barbara Thiem
Introduction: Callus and cell suspension cultures are widely applied in investigation of production of high-value secondary metabolites, which may be used as cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Plant cell cultures are promising alternative to intact plant sources for the production of plant-derived drugs of industrial importance.
Objective: The aim of the study was to (i) initiate the cell suspension culture of Chaenomeles japonica from homogenous and uniform callus, (ii) stabilize the selected line and (iii) verify its ability to produce the desired groups of secondary metabolites – pentacyclic triterpenoids and polyphenols.
Methods: To establish a cell suspension culture, stabilized and homogeneous callus was selected. Cell cultures were systematically passaged every 2 weeks to fresh liquid medium with the same composition. Biomass from cultures at the growth phase and stationary phase was designated for phytochemical research. UHPLC-DAD-MS analyzes were performed. At the same time, their macroscopic and microscopic observations were carried out.
Results: Cells of suspension culture line A2 were characterized by the intense divisions. Cell culture extracts (both from the growth phase and stationary phase) contained pentacyclic triterpenoids. In addition, phe-nolic compounds (chlorogenic acid and proanthocyanidins type B) and in a small amount also epicatechin are present in the extract of the cells harvested from the growth phase. In the present studies, three pentacyclic triterpenoids were detected and quantified in the extracts of cell suspensions and callus line A2. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were the main triterpenoids in the studied extracts. The cell suspension culture from the growth phase exhibited the highest content of ursolic, oleanolic, and betulinic acid (separately and together).
Conclusion: The cell suspension culture of Chaenomeles japonica is a promising source of pentacyclic triterpenoids.
Włodzimierz Meissner, Małgorzata Krupa, Magdalena Remisiewicz, Robert Krupa, Piotr Minias, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, Tomasz Janiszewski, Radosław Włodarczyk, Radosław Kozik, Piotr Rydzkowski, Lucjan Kleinschmidt and Adam Wojciechowski
Results of Fieldwork of Wader Research Stations Working in Poland in 2004-2005
Jacek Karamon, Małgorzata Samorek-Pieróg, Bożena Moskwa, Mirosław Różycki, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Jolanta Zdybel and Magdalena Włodarczyk
Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland), with particular regard to zoonotic parasites.
Material and Methods: Intestines from 53 raccoon dogs and 66 red foxes were examined with the use of sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). Samples of faeces from 51 red foxes and 50 raccoon dogs were examined with the use of flotation method.
Results: Parasitic helminths were found by SCT in 98.5% of red foxes and 96.2% of raccoon dogs. Both species were infected with: Alaria alata (93.9% and 94.3%, respectively), hookworms (68.2% and 83.0%), Apophallus spp. (7.6% and 15.1%), Mesocestoides spp. (57.6% and 24.5%), Taenia spp. (40.9% and 1.9%), and Toxocara/Toxascaris nematodes (33.3% 15.1%). Echinococcus multilocularis was detected only in red foxes (6.1%), but trematodes Echinostomatidae and nematodes Molineus spp. only in raccoon dogs (18.9% and 41.5%, respectively). Additionally, Capillaria spp. eggs were detected by flotation method in 78.4% of foxes and 20.0% of raccoon dogs.
Conclusion: The study showed a very high percentage of red foxes and raccoon dogs infected with intestinal helminths in the Augustów Primeval Forest. Moreover, dangerous zoonotic parasites also were found, which should be taken into consideration in the assessment of infection risk for humans in this region.