Control of Landfill Gases Emission with Particular Emphasis on Btex
Landfilling is the most popular way for waste disposal and has been widely applied globally. A large quantity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is released from landfills. Among them, BTEX (benzene, toluene ethylbenzene and xylene) is a major group of pollutants, which have now become a cause for concern worldwide because of their toxic properties. For this reason, strict regulations have come into force which induce researchers to find methods to reduce their emissions. This article contains descriptions of several aerobic metabolic pathways for the degradation of BTEX, which are provided by two enzymatic systems (dioxygenases and monooxygenases). Special attention was paid to biofiltration - a method for improving the efficiency of treatment of BTEX released from landfills.
Trees play a crucial role in the urban environment. They fulfil aesthetic, sociocultural, ecological, health-promoting and economic functions. Urban development and related human activity bring many risks to green areas within urban space. Plants are exposed to stress connected with water, soil and air pollution. Living space, harmful light and thermal conditions, drought, high density and changeable soil pH with excessive salinity are further disadvantages. European and Northern American cities have to cope with a serious danger of tree death. A leading cause is the use of de-icing chemicals in winter, particularly sodium chloride, applied due to its cost-effectiveness and availability. The paper describes traditional de-icing chemicals used in urban areas (NaCl, solid aggregates, CaCl2, MgCl sulphates MgSO4, (NH4)2SO4, urea alcohols and glycols isopropyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, methanol) and newly developed sodium chloride substitutes (calcium magnesium acetate CMA), sodium formate and acetate NaFo/NaAc, potassium carbonate K2CO3). Moreover, prophylactic methods aimed at preventing the negative impact of de-icing campaigns, rules of planning and design of urban landscape, and reasonable management measures and pro-ecological modern technologies reducing and reversing the consequences of harmful actions are presented
Carbon dioxide fluxes between ecosystems of the Earth are presented. It was shown that intensifying its absorption of terrestrial ecosystems by 3.2% would prove sufficient to neutralize carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and cement production. It was shown that Polish forests absorb 84.6 million tons of CO2/year, that is 26% of emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production, while agricultural crops absorb 103 million tons of CO2/year. Total carbon dioxide sequestration by forests and agricultural crops amounts to 187.5 million tons of CO2/year, which is tantamount to 59% of emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production. Forestation of marginal soils would further increase carbon dioxide absorption in Poland by 20.6 million tons of CO2/year. Moreover, if plants were sown in order to produce green manure - instead of leaving soil fallow - sequestration could still be boosted by another 6.2 million tons of CO2/year.
During a 35-month study on the decomposition of Sphagnum moss litter in poor fen and pine bog forest, an intensive colonization of litter-bags by mycorrhizal roots was observed during the decomposition process. Content of mycorrhizal roots in litter-bags, expressed as % mass of roots, was generally increasing during the decomposition in pine bog forest, and fluctuating during decomposition on poor fen, although in both cases the results were statistically insignificant. Two morphotypes of ericoid roots and two morphotypes of ectomycorrhizal roots were recorded from litter-bags on poor fen during the decomposition experiment, while in pine bog forest one morphotype of ericoid and nine morphotypes of ectomycorrhizal roots were recorded. Molecular identification of mycorrhizal roots succeeded only in the case of one ericoid and six putatively ectomycorrhizal morphotypes. Most morphotypes were recorded only once during the whole 35-month decomposition period, and only one ericoid and one ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were shared between the poor fen and pine bog forest communities
The global fluxes of carbon in the ecosystem of Earth, with particular attention drawn to the cycle of CO2 were characterised. The sequestration of carbon dioxide in the biomass of plants, especially the ones which can be cultivated as catch crops is described. It was shown that the cultivation of catch crops may play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 emissions.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diet supplementation with sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract (0.2% and 0.3%) on femur quality of growing pigs (n = 45). Material and Methods: At the age of 28, 35 and 56 d, five piglets from each group fed a different diet were euthanised and the femora were collected for further analyses. The bone characteristics were assessed based on weight, length, densitometric analysis of BMC and BMD, pQCT analysis (area, mineral content, volumetric density of trabecular and cortical part of metaphysis and diaphysis, respectively), ultimate strength, and geometrical parameters (cross-sectional area and second moment of inertia). Results: There were no significant differences in femur bone parameters among experimental groups on the 28th d of life. On the 35th d of life, piglets with 0.2% supplementation of sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract had significantly lower values of weight and second moment of inertia, and significantly higher trabecular BMD and BMC compared to other experimental groups. In 56-day-old pigs, the higher values were observed in both experimental groups regarding BMC, ultimate strength, geometrical parameters, cortical BMC, diaphyseal total area, and endosteal circumference (P < 0.05). Significant differences between experimental groups were observed only in bone weight and cortical thickness. Conclusion: This study proved that simultaneous supplementation with sodium butyrate and Yucca schidigera extract positively influences bone quality in pigs in the post-weaning period. However, there were no differences in bone characteristics between the addition of 0.2% and 0.3% preparations.
Reaktywacja zakażenia HBV jest istotnym problemem u chorych poddawanych terapiom, które poprzez działanie immunomodulujące wpływają na upośledzenie odporności przeciwwirusowej, takim jak: leczenie biologiczne (np. przeciwciała monoklonalne powodujące deplecję limfocytów CD20, przeciwciała anty-TNF), chemioterapia, leczenie immunosupresyjne (np. kortykosteroidy, cyklosporyna, azatiopryna). Ryzyko reaktywacji wiąże się również z nowymi terapiami stosowanymi w leczeniu nowotworów hematologicznych, takimi jaki inhibitory kinaz tyrozynowych, inhibitory proteasomu czy przeciwciało anty-CD38, daratumumab. Populacją szczególnie zagrożoną są chorzy poddawani transplantacji komórek krwiotwórczych, w szczególności chorzy po transplantacji allogenicznej, u których prowadzone jest leczenie immunosupresyjne. W pracy przedstawiono epidemiologię, czynniki ryzyka reaktywacji oraz aktualne zasady postępowania dotyczące profilaktyki reaktywacji zakażenia HBV.