Salicylic acid is a derivative of benzoic acid and occurs in nature. The main target of this study was to develop the liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique as a method for determination of salicylic acid in feed materials and compound feed.
Material and Methods
Salicylic acid was extracted from feed with 0.1% hydrochloric acid in methanol. Separation was achieved in 8 min in a gradient elution using 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. The analyte was detected using negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The procedure was validated to the specifications of the European Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC.
The validation results showed the repeatability of the method, which was evaluated at three levels (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg). Calibration curves for the working ranges were linear (R2 0.9911 to 0.9936), and recoveries ranged from 98.3% to 101%. The LOD and LOQ for compound feed were 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg, respectively. Salicylic acid was found mostly in corn, and its concentrations differed depending on whether it was young or fully grown (5.30–12.8 mg/kg and 0.13–1.01 mg/kg, respectively).
A sensitive and reliable method for the determination of salicylic acid in feed and compound feed using LC-MS/MS was developed.
Some azo dyes, including Sudans I–IV and Para Red, are genotoxic and may be biotransformed to cancerogenic aromatic amines. They are banned as food and feed additives, but their presence has been detected in food. Aromatic amines are also considered potentially toxic. Online EC–MS is a promising tool to study the transformation mechanisms of xenobiotics such as azo dyes. The aim of the study was to investigate emulation of how azo dyes are enzymatically transformed to amines with EC–MS.
Material and Methods
The reduction reactions of five azo dyes (Sudans I–IV and Para Red) were conducted using a glassy carbon working electrode and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. Reduction results were compared with the literature and in silico to select preliminary candidates for metabolites. The LC-MS/MS method was used to confirm results obtained by electrochemical reactor.
A limited number of pre-selected compounds were confirmed as azo dyes metabolites – aniline for Sudan I, aniline and 4-aminoazobenzene for Sudan III, o-toluidine for Sudan IV, and 4-nitroaniline for Para Red. No metabolites were found for Sudan II.
Electrochemistry–mass spectrometry was successfully applied to azo dyes. This approach may be used to mimic the metabolism of azo dyes, and therefore predict products of biotransformation.
A sensitive and reliable method has been developed and validated to determine residues of abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin in bovine milk. Isolation of the analytes from milk was performed with the use of liquidliquid extraction with acetonitrile in the presence of sodium chloride. The extract was defatted with hexane and cleaned up using solid phase extraction (C8 cartridge) after forming ion pairs with triethylamine. The analytes were derivatized with N, Ndimethylformamide, acetic acid anhydride, and N-methylimidazole (100°C, 90 min). The derivatives were determined by reverse phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (excitation and emission wavelength 365 nm and 475 nm, respectively). Recoveries of the lactones from milk samples fortified at 10-30 μg kg-1 ranged from 52% to 80% with intra-laboratory reproducibility (CV) of 12.7%-22.8%. The critical concentrations (decision limit, CCα and detection capability, CCβ) were in accordance with target limits. The method has been verified in the proficiency studies by EURL/CVL Berlin (all z-scores in the range of ±2). The method was transferred to routine laboratories, verified in inter-laboratory comparison and successfully applied in the National Residue Control Plan.
A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS) for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites), cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites), flubendazole (and metabolites), mebendazole (and metabolites), oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites), triclabendazole (and metabolites); macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites), morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg) except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg) and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.
Introduction: The paper presents the method of simultaneous determination of 10 illegal azo dyes in feed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique. Material and Methods: The dyes were extracted with hexane, evaporated to dryness, and analysed. Separation was achieved in 7 min in a gradient elution using acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% formic acid (B) as a mobile phase. Results: The validation results showed the repeatability of the method, which was evaluated at three levels (50, 500, and 5,000 μg/kg). All the matrix calibration curves for the working ranges were linear (R2 0.9904 to 1.0), the repeatability was between 2.1% and 24%, and recoveries ranged from 77.9% to 120%. The LOD and LOQ were at 1-2 and 5-10 μg/kg for different dyes, respectively. Furthermore, the method was applied in the homogeneity tests of the in-house prepared feed containing Sudan I at the levels of 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg. Conclusions: A sensitive, selective, and fast multiresidue method was successfully developed and validated. Its robustness was confirmed by the analysis of an experimental feed containing Sudan I.