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  • Author: Małgorzata Mazur x
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Open access

Małgorzata Nadziakiewicz, Halina Kurzawińska, Stanisław Mazur and Dorota Tekielska

Abstract

Symptoms of discoloration and necrosis of the leaves/needles and shoots of plants are an increasingly common phenomenon in nurseries. They necessitate the withdrawal of the affected plants from sale, which has significant economic consequences. In 2010-2011, observations were conducted of the health of shrubs in nurseries of the Małopolska province. Disease symptoms were mostly found in juniper (Juniperus horizontalis ‘Wiltonii’), rose (ground-cover rose ‘Star Profusion’), yew (Taxus × media ‘Hillii’) and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum ‘Patriot’). These species were selected for further study. The affected shrubs represented more than 46% of the population of a given species. Fragments of the diseased organs: the leaves or needles, the base of the shoots, and the roots, were collected from the borderline between healthy and diseased tissue, and used to isolate and identify the microorganisms colonizing the diseased parts. The affected organs were found to be inhabited to the largest extent by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., which accounted for 19.7 to 47.5% of the isolates from the tested species of shrubs. There were also large populations of fungi of the genera: Botrytis (up to 9.82%), Cladosporium (up to 5.66%), Colletotrichum (up to 5.13%), Fusarium (up to 18.38%), Mortierella (up to 7.26%), Pestalotia (up to 5.36%), Rhizoctonia (up to 5.36%), Sclerotinia (up to 6.99%), and Trichoderma (up to 17.09%). The fungus A. alternata, being by far the dominant pathogen, was tested for its pathogenicity for the shoots of the chosen species of shrubs. The test was conducted for 14 days in a chamber with parameters so programmed that they reflected the natural conditions at the height of the growing season. The fungus A. alternata exhibited pathogenicity for all of the tested species of shrubs. Necrosis developed on all the inoculated fragments of shoots. The surface area of necrotic lesions was larger on the shoots of juniper and blueberry.

Open access

Damian Wojcieszak, Michał Mazur, Danuta Kaczmarek, Agata Poniedziałek and Małgorzata Osękowska

Abstract

The biological and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and TiO2:Cu in relation to their structure, surface topography, wettability and optical properties of the thin films was investigated. Thin-film coatings were prepared by magnetron sputtering method in oxygen plasma with use of metallic targets (Ti and Ti-Cu). The results of structural studies revealed that addition of Cu into titania matrix (during the deposition process) resulted in obtaining of an amorphous film, while in case of undoped TiO2, presence of nanocrystalline anatase (with crystallites size of 20 nm) was found. Moreover, an addition of cooper had also an effect on surface diversification and decrease of its hydrophilicity. The roughness of TiO2:Cu film was 25 % lower (0.6 nm) as-compared to titania (0.8 nm). These modifications of TiO2:Cu had an impact on the decrease of its photocatalytic activity, probably as a result of the active surface area decrease. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of the thin films against bacteria (Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli) and yeast (Candida albicans) were also examined. For the purpose of this work the method dedicated for the evaluation of antimicrobial properties of thin films was developed. It was revealed that Cu-additive has a positive impact on neutralization of microorganisms.

Open access

Elżbieta Szczygieł, Katarzyna Zielonka, Tadeusz Mazur, Joanna Golec, Alicja Turczyk and Małgorzata Kogut

Abstract

Introduction: An ischemic stroke is one of the most common causes of disability among adults. The results of a stroke incident are: abnormal muscle tension, free movement and postural control dysfunction, walking disturbances, body asymmetry. They contribute to the significant changes in the proper functioning in daily life. The aim of the project was to assess the influence of the exercises that activate deep body muscles on the postural control and muscle tension among people after ischemic stroke.

Material and methods: The study included 18 patients (7 women and 11 men) after ischemic stroke with hemiparesis. Those patients was divided into two groups: research group (RG): 9 patients (average age 61,33), time from the stroke: 2 months to 4 years, control group (CG): 9 patients (average age 69,56), time from the stroke: 2 months to 4 years. RG was following the standard exercise program and additionally was performing exercises which activate deep body muscles. CG was following only the standard therapy program. PUM chair was used for deep muscles exercises. The posture control was assessed according to the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patient and the muscle tension was assessed according to the Ashworth scale.

Results: In the study group after deep muscle training reported a significant correlation between muscle spasticity of the lower and changes in body position.

Conclusions: Obtained results indicate on the need to introduce deep muscles therapy in the reeducation of postural control among patients with hemiparesis and to continue research on more extensive group of patients.

Open access

Damian Wojcieszak, Michał Mazur, Joanna Indyka, Aleksandra Jurkowska, Małgorzata Kalisz, Piotr Domanowski, Danuta Kaczmarek and Jarosław Domaradzki

Abstract

Titanium dioxide thin films were prepared using two types of magnetron sputtering processes: conventional and with modulated plasma. The films were deposited on SiO2 and Si substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements of prepared coatings revealed that the films prepared using both methods were nanocrystalline. However, the coatings deposited using conventional magnetron sputtering had anatase structure, while application of sputtering with modulated plasma made possible to obtain films with rutile phase. Investigations performed with the aid of scanning electron microscope showed significant difference in the surface morphology as well as the microstructure at the thin film cross-sections. The mechanical properties of the obtained coatings were determined on the basis of nanoindentation and abrasion resistance tests. The hardness was much higher for the films with the rutile structure, while the scratch resistance was similar in both cases. Optical properties were evaluated on the basis of transmittance measurements and showed that both coatings were well transparent in a visible wavelength range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient were higher for TiO2 with rutile structure.

Open access

Artur Wiatrowski, Michał Mazur, Agata Obstarczyk, Danuta Kaczmarek, Roman Pastuszek, Damian Wojcieszak, Marcin Grobelny and Małgorzata Kalisz

Abstract

In this paper, comparative studies on the structural, surface, optical, mechanical and corrosion properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by continuous and sequential magnetron sputtering processes were presented. In case of continuous process, magnetron was continuously supplied with voltage for 90 min. In turn, in sequential process, the voltage was supplied for 1 s alternately with 1 s break, therefore, the total time of the process was extended to 180 min. The TiO2 thin films were crack free, exhibited good adherence to the substrate and the surface morphology was homogeneous. Structural analysis showed that there were no major differences in the microstructure between coatings deposited in continuous and sequential processes. Both films exhibited nanocrystalline anatase structure with crystallite sizes of ca. 21 nm. Deposited coatings had high transparency in the visible wavelength range. Significant differences were observed in porosity (lower for sequential process), scratch resistance (better for sequential process), mechanical performance, i.e. hardness:elastic modulus ratio (higher for sequential process) and corrosion resistance (better for sequential process).

Open access

M. Kander, U. Pasławska, M. Staszczyk, A. Cepiel, R. Pasławski, G. Mazur and A. Noszczyk-Nowak

Abstract

The study has focused on the retrospective analysis of cases of coexisting congenital aortic stenosis (AS) and pulmonary artery stenosis (PS) in dogs.

The research included 5463 dogs which were referred for cardiological examination (including clinical examination, ECG and echocardiography) between 2004 and 2014. Aortic stenosis and PS stenosis were detected in 31 dogs. This complex defect was the most commonly diagnosed in Boxers – 7 dogs, other breeds were represented by: 4 cross-breed dogs, 2 Bichon Maltais, 3 Miniature Pinschers, 2 Bernese Mountain Dogs, 2 French Bulldogs, and individuals of following breeds: Bichon Frise, Bull Terrier, Czech Wolfdog, German Shepherd, Hairless Chinese Crested Dog, Miniature Schnauzer, Pug, Rottweiler, Samoyed, West Highland White Terrier and Yorkshire Terrier. In all the dogs, the murmurs could be heard, graded from 2 to 5 (on a scale of 1-6). Besides, in 9 cases other congenital defects were diagnosed: patent ductus arteriosus, mitral valve dysplasia, pulmonary or aortic valve regurgitation, tricuspid valve dysplasia, ventricular or atrial septal defect. The majority of the dogs suffered from pulmonary valvular stenosis (1 dog had supravalvular pulmonary artery stenosis) and subvalvular aortic stenosis (2 dogs had valvular aortic stenosis).

Conclusions and clinical relevance – co-occurrence of AS and PS is the most common complex congenital heart defect. Boxer breed was predisposed to this complex defect. It was found that coexisting AS and PS is more common in male dogs and the degree of PS and AS was mostly similar.

Open access

Małgorzata Osękowska, Ewa Karuga-Kuźniewska, Damian Wojcieszak, Michał Mazur, Agata Poniedziałek, Danuta Kaczmarek, Maria Szymonowicz and Zbigniew Rybak

Abstract

In this work the physicochemical and biological properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films were investigated. Thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering method. Their properties were examined by X-ray diffraction, photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical transmission method and optical profiler. Moreover, surface wettability and scratch resistance were determined. It was found that as-deposited coatings were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure, built from crystallites in size of 24 nm. The surface of the films was homogenous, composed of closely packed grains and hydrophilic. Due to nanocrystalline structure thin films exhibited good scratch resistance. The results were correlated to the biological activity (in vitro) of thin films. Morphological changes of mouse fibroblasts (L929 cell line) after contact with the surface of TiO2 films were evaluated with the use of a contrast-phase microscope, while their viability was tested by MTT colorimetric assay. The viability of cell line upon contact with the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2 film was comparable to the control sample. L929 cells had homogenous cytoplasm and were forming a confluent monofilm, while lysis and inhibition of cell growth was not observed. Moreover, the viability in contact with surface of examined films was high. This confirms non-cytotoxic effect of TiO2 film surface on mouse fibroblasts.

Open access

Beata Szymczyk, Witold Szczurek, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Krzysztof Kwiatek, Zbigniew Sieradzki, Małgorzata Mazur, Dariusz Bednarek and Michał Reichert

Abstract

Introduction

The influence of feeding genetically modified MON 810 hybrid maize on the growth and haematological and biochemical indices of rats was tested.

Material and Methods

Two conventional (non-GM) and two test (MON 810) lines of maize were used in semi-purified diets at the level of 40% w/w. The non-GM I, MON 810 I, non-GM II, and MON 810 II maize lines were near-isogenic. A total of 40 male 6-week-old Wistar-derived rats were assigned to four equal feeding groups corresponding to the four maize lines for 16 weeks. Overall, health, body weight gain, clinical pathology parameters, gross changes, and appearance of tissues were compared between groups.

Results

There were no statistically significant differences in the weight gain or relative organ weights of rats, but there were some non diet-related histopathological changes in the liver, kidneys, and spleen. Except for creatinine level, no diet-related effects were observed in haematology or most of the biochemical indices. Transgenic DNA of MON 810 maize was not detected in the tissues or faeces nor in the DNA of E. coli isolated from the rectum digesta of rats given transgenic feeds. In our experiment, various metabolic indices of rats fed non-GM diets or genetically modified (MON 810) maize for 16 weeks were similar. No adverse nutrition-related health effects were detected.

Conclusion

MON 810 maize seems to be as safe as the conventional maize lines.