Colour is one of the most important properties of cotton raw materials. It helps in determining and classifying the quality of fibres according to the Universal Cotton Standards. Organoleptic and instrumental techniques are applied to assess the color of cotton. Worldwide, the colour parameters of cotton are measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI), which provides information on reflectance (Rd) and yellowness (+b) that is specific for cotton, but are not the typical and globally recognized colour characteristics. Usually, worldwide, the colour of textile products and other goods is assessed utilizing the spectrophotometer, which provides the colour data that is widely recognized and accepted by the CIE L*a*b* colour space. This paper discusses utilizing the DigiEye system to measure the colour parameters of cotton samples and compares the results with the colour parameters from the HVI.
Friction is defined as a force resisting a relative motion between two bodies in contact. The friction of a fabric on itself or on another fabric influences significantly a fabric’s performance and user’s utility comfort, especially the so-called sensorial comfort. Generally, the coefficient of friction is determined for a given pair of materials. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of the structure of the seersucker woven fabrics on their frictional properties. Three variants of the seersucker woven fabrics of different repeat of the seersucker effect were the objects of the investigations. Three measuring elements were applied: made of aluminum and steel and covered with silicone. The obtained results confirmed the influence of the pattern of the seersucker effect on the values of friction coefficient. It was also stated that there are differences between the friction coefficients measured in the warp and weft directions of the seersucker woven fabrics. Values of friction coefficient between the seersucker woven fabrics and measuring elements were the highest for the measuring element covered by silicone. These values were several times higher than the values of friction coefficient measured using the measuring elements made of aluminum and steel.
The surface characteristics of fabrics are important from the point of view of the sensorial comfort of clothing users. Surface friction and surface roughness are the most important surface parameters of fabrics. These parameters can be measured using different methods, the most important and well-accepted method being that using the Kawabata evaluation system (KES)-FB4 testing instrument. In this work, the surface roughness and surface friction of the seersucker woven fabric have been determined using the KES-FB4. However, the measurement procedure needs modification. On the basis of the results, the influence of the repeat of the seersucker effect and the linear density of the weft yarn on the surface parameters has been determined.
Thermal-insulation properties of textile materials play a significant role in material engineering of protective clothing. Thermal-insulation properties are very important from the point of view of thermal comfort of the clothing user as well as the protective efficiency against low or high temperature. Thermal protective clothing usually is a multilayer construction. Its thermal insulation is a resultant of a number of layers and their order, as well as the thermalinsulation properties of a single textile material creating particular layers. The aim of the presented work was to investigate the relationships between the thermal-insulation properties of single materials and multilayer textile packages composed of these materials. Measurement of the thermal-insulation properties of single and multilayer textile materials has been performed with the Alambeta. The following properties have been investigated: thermal conductivity, resistance and absorptivity. Investigated textile packages were composed of two, three and four layers made of woven and knitted fabrics, as well as nonwovens. On the basis of the obtained results an analysis has been carried out in order to assess the dependency of the resultant values of the thermal-insulation properties of multilayer packages on the appropriate values of particular components.
Seersucker woven fabrics create a unique 3D woven structure. Such 3D structure is usually received on loom by an application of two warps of different tension. However, a kind of the weft yarn also significantly influences the structure and properties of the seersucker woven fabric. The paper presents an investigation of the seersucker fabrics made of the same set of warps and different weft yarns. The mechanical properties of the investigated fabrics were measured by means of the standardized testing methods. The structure of the fabric was assessed using the 3D laser scanning.
The aim of presented work was to design the cotton woven fabrics which ensure thermal resistance higher than standard cotton fabrics of basic weaves. It was done in order to combine the excellent hygienic properties of cotton fibers with thermal insulation. Three variants of two-face cotton woven fabrics of different structure were designed and manufactured. Next, they were measured in the range of their basic structural, mechanical, and comfort-related properties. The results obtained were analyzed in the aspect of properties influencing the utility comfort of user wearing clothing made of the investigated fabrics.
Seersucker woven fabrics are increasingly used in the textile industry. Unfortunately, their popularity is limited due to the lack of standards and parameterization of their structure. Thus, the designer of the finished product (clothing, bedding, or decorative items) has problems with ordering a fabric with a specific structure and properties. In this context, it is necessary to parameterize them. This paper presents a method for measuring the surface geometry of seersucker woven fabrics using laser techniques. The surface geometry of the seersucker woven fabric was determined using adapted roughness parameters, such as Wz, Ra, and Rz, as well as by using a hypsometric map.