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  • Author: Małgorzata Maj x
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Purpose: This study aims to assess the direction of changes in the extent of extreme, relative, and statutory poverty in 2008–2017 in Poland, along with the spatial differentiation of poverty in individual voivodships.

Methodology: The study of poverty differentiation based on data from Household Budgets Survey. Obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis, using elements of multidimensional analysis.

Results: The research revealed that there are significant differences in the level of poverty in individual voivodships, with lower values observed in Western Poland. A significant drop in the level of poverty, especially extreme poverty, was recorded in 2008–2017. Furthermore, fluctuations in the extent of poverty are strongly impacted by state policy.

Implications: Research results may be useful to policy-makers at the local government level not only in Poland but also in other countries, mainly from the perspective of the European Union’s Europe 2020 strategy.

Originality/Value: The article undertakes the topic of poverty, which constitutes an important and current socioeconomic concern. Despite progressive economic development, there still exist disadvantaged groups of entities and households.


Understanding the city as a whole, its functioning, and needs of its inhabitants is currently becoming an important issue. Solutions introduced in cities based on the principles of the concept of walkable city and universal design are becoming more and more popular around the globe. Both topics have been so far discussed separately, although due to the requirements of social life and introduction of new legal regulations, they should be analysed together. The objective of the paper is to examine the impact of the design concepts of walkable city and universal design on the practical aspects of life of people with disabilities in selected cities, with particular consideration of obstacles existing in public spaces. The main contribution of this study is twofold. In the methodological aspect, a synthetic index was developed based on the ‘Ten Steps of Walkability’. In practical terms, it was analysed from both the spatial aspect using UD principles (field inventory) and social perspective (semi-structured interviews with experts and a questionnaire survey). As a result, a mental map was developed, presenting obstacles and barriers in public spaces and in buildings relevant for people with and without disabilities (hearing, movement, and visual impairments). The results can be used for universal design worldwide to improve the accessibility of walkable spaces for people with special needs.