The paper refers to the social innovation of participatory budgeting which has become a very popular tool for stimulating citizen participation at the local level in Poland. It focuses on the major cities, defined as capitals of the voivodeships or regions. Based on the data concerning 2018 participatory budgeting editions in the eighteen cities, it describes the funding, organisation of the process, forms of voting and voter participation as well as the nature of projects selected and implemented. According to the amended Act on the Local Self-Government, organisation of participatory budgeting will only be obligatory for Polish cities from 2019. Despite that fact, it has already become quite popular and broadly applied in local communities. However, citizens’ participation and involvement in the process seems quite low, suggesting a need for experience sharing and improvement of the initiative. Also, project selection reflects the influence of various social groups within urban communities, rather than assisting groups which are at risk of marginalisation.
Małgorzata Kandefer-Gola, Rafał Ciaputa, Marcin Nowak and Janusz A. Madej
The study aimed at morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases in canine lymph nodes and lungs. Tissue sections were stained using classical technique with haematoxylin and eosin. In addition, immunohistochemical studies were performed with p16, cytokeratin, and Ki-67 antibodies. An expression of all examined antigens was detected in laryngeal tumours, while in tumour metastases only expression of p16 protein and cytokeratin was demonstrated. The results pointed to higher proliferative potential of the primary tumour than of their metastases.
Małgorzata Kandefer-Gola, Marcin Nowak, Rafał Ciaputa and Janusz A. Madej
Immunohistochemical studies have become an indispensable element of establishing the correct histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated lesions, proving particularly suitable, and occasionally indispensable, for diagnosis of poorly differentiated neoplastic tumours. Knowledge of the mechanism of action and normal reaction of individual proteins is required in selection of the antibody pattern for a given tissue and in evaluation of the obtained results. This paper aims to promote the application of immunohistochemical techniques in routine diagnosis, especially in cases of poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumours.
Rafał Ciaputa, Małgorzata Kandefer-Gola, Marcin Nowak and Janusz A. Madej
The study aimed at the analysis of prevalence frequency and localisation of tumours in domestic animals. The research material comprised 4,212 tumours developed in dogs, cats, horses, and exotic animals, isolated during surgery, autopsy or biopsy, performed for the purpose of histopathological diagnosis. The most numerous group involved canine tumours, including 3,585 cases (85.1%), followed by tumours in cats (532 cases, 12.6%), ferrets (34 cases, 0.81%), rats (19 cases, 0.45%), horses (15 cases, 0.36%), and rabbits (14 cases, 0.33%). A significant increase in incidence of tumours was noted, as compared to studies performed in the same region of Poland in 1957-1995 and 2000-2004 or in 2005-2008. This was particularly evident in exotic animals, in which 80 cases (1.9%) were detected in 2009-2011 but only 20 cases (1.2%) in 2005-2008. The most frequent localisation of neoplasia involved the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and mammary gland.
Małgorzata Kandefer-Gola, Janusz A. Madej, Stanisław Dzimira, Izabela Janus, Marcin Nowak and Rafał Ciaputa
The aim of the study was to assess the microvessel density based on the analysis of the expression of the CD31, VEGF, and LIMS-1 proteins in canine mast cell tumours. The study was conducted on 60 mastocytomas; 16 cases were classified as the grade I, 26 as the grade II, and 18 as the grade III. Statistical analysis showed a positive correlation only between the grade of the tumour and the expression of LIMS-1. In conclusion, LIMS-1 could be successfully used as a prognostic endothelial cell marker in mast cell tumour. CD31 may be a useful marker, but further examinations are necessary. VEGF is not recommended
Rafał Ciaputa, Marcin Nowak, Janusz A. Madej, Izabela Janus, Elżbieta Górzyńska and Małgorzata Kandefer-Gola
Immunohistochemical profiles of the most common canine testicular tumours, including the Leydig cell tumours, seminomas, and Sertoli cell tumours were analysed, and the results were compared with those obtained in the corresponding types of human testicular neoplasms. The expressions of vimentin, von Willebrand factor (FVIII), chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and MCM3 were quantified. In the case of Sertoli cell tumours, only canine ones were analysed, since this type of tumour is very rarely diagnosed in men. The expression of the analysed proteins in the testicular tumours was similar. The von Willebrand factor exhibited the strongest expression in Leydig cell tumours in dogs and men, while vimentin was expressed more strongly in dogs (96.7% had an intensity at +++) than in men (62.5% had +++) in the Leydigioma. The immunoexpression of MCM3 in seminomas was high in both men and dogs – 90% +++ and 100% +++ respectively. The lack of chromogranin A and synaptophysin was observed in almost 100% of seminomas in men and dogs. This differed from the results obtained for Leydigioma, where chromogranin A was expressed in 70% of dogs at +++ and in 100% of men at ++++. The results may indicate that the antibodies were selected correctly. Their analysis and interpretation provides valuable information concerning the nature of the studied tumours.