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  • Author: Małgorzata Krówczyńska x
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Małgorzata Krówczyńska, Agnieszka Soszyńska, Piotr Pabjanek, Ewa Wilk, Pavol Hurbanek and Konstantin Rosina

Abstract

Increasing urbanization results in constant enlarging of the artificial area closed to water infiltration. In 2006–2008, the Soil Sealing Enhancement (SSE) database was the part of the GMES Fast Track Service on Land Monitoring. The accuracy of the final product set by the authors should reach at least 85%. Orthorectified high resolution aerial photos of Poland were used to develop reference data constituting 20,000 random samples around the country. In each sample, the points were classified into three possible surface classes: natural, artificial and semi-sealed. Comparison of reference data to original project statistics revealed the values of accuracy, commission and omission errors in the SSE dataset. Although, SSE accuracy in Poland fulfils the criteria set by SSE authors with overall accuracy of 99.5%, the individual analysis for each category reveals many weaknesses. Preliminary interpretation of mistakes leads to the conclusion that the spatial resolution of pictures used in the SSE project is insufficient. In several cases, validation proved that omission errors were made in relation to construction sites or recently constructed buildings. It should be stated that the accuracy of SSE product for Poland should be treated as the maximum value of impervious surfaces.

Open access

Ewa Wilk, Małgorzata Krówczyńska and Bogdan Zagajewski

Abstract

The unique set of physical and chemical properties of asbestos has led to its many industrial applications, such as roof coverings, textiles, rope, cord and yarn, paper, friction and composition materials, household product, acid-resistant filters, packing, insulation, and certain types of lagging, amongst others. In Poland asbestos-containing products were manufactured from raw materials imported mainly from the former Soviet Union, with production launched at the beginning of 20th century. According to Annex 4 to the Act of 19 June 1997 on the prohibition of the use of asbestos-containing products, there were 28 asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland located in 11 provinces throughout the country. The current survey was undertaken to enable asbestos manufacturing plants to be arranged, described and divided in order to contribute to further surveys.

Open access

Małgorzata Krówczyńska, Ewa Wilk and Bogdan Zagajewski

Abstract

On January 1, 2005 the use of asbestos-containing products was banned in the European Union. According to the Act of 19 June 1997 banning the use of these products, their usage in Poland should be abated by the end of 2032. The whole process is being monitored by the Electronic Spatial Information System for the Monitoring of Asbestos Products Removal. The system design was based on a geodatabase. The research area of the study is the whole territory of Poland at the national, provincial and local level of detail. The monitoring process embraces spatial analysis through the preparation and interpretation of a range of maps. The results obtained from the deployed methods proved that the system has been useful for decision making purposes during the monitoring process. The proposed solutions were appreciated by the EU.

Open access

Ewa Wilk, Małgorzata Krówczyńska and Piotr Pabjanek

Abstract

Because of its harmfulness to human health, asbestos has been banned in 55 countries, including the EU. In Poland, the use and production of asbestos and asbestos-containing products has been forbidden since 1997. However, there is no precise data about the amount of asbestos-containing products to be eliminated from the territory of Poland. This survey aims to identify characteristics that have a significant impact on the estimation of asbestos-containing products used in Poland. Statistical correlation between the results of the physical inventory count done in 155 municipalities was examined. As a result of the survey it was found that the amount of asbestos-cement roofing depends on the following factors: the number of individual farms in the village, the distance from the asbestos manufacturing plants, the age of the buildings and the economic situation of municipality. The results obtained may contribute to the ability to predict the amount of asbestos-containing products used in other municipalities.

Open access

Małgorzata Krówczyńska, Ewa Wilk, Piotr Pabjanek, Bogdan Zagajewski and Koen Meuleman

Abstract

Asbestos and asbestos containing products are harmful to human health, and therefore its use has been legally forbidden in the EU. Since there is no adequate data on the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland, the objective of this study was to map asbestos-cement roofing with the use of hyperspectral APEX data (288 bands at the spatial resolution of 2.7 m) in the Karpacz area (southwest Poland). A field survey constituted the basis for training and verification polygons in the classification process. A SAM classification method was performed with the following classification results: 62% producer’s accuracy, 73% user’s accuracy and an overall accuracy of 95%. The asbestos-cement roofing for buildings may be discriminated with a high classification accuracy with the use of hyperspectral imagery. The vast majority of the classified buildings were characterised by their small area (i.e. residential type buildings), which reduced the overall accuracy of the classification.

Open access

Piotr Pabjanek, Małgorzata Krówczyńska, Ewa Wilk and Michał Miecznikowski

Abstract

The purpose of the undertaken survey is to assess the accuracy of the SSE2009, based on a reference dataset. The dataset contains 3,600 samples with the same spatial resolution as the final Soil Sealing Layer product and covers a rectangle of 36 km2. The basis for assessing the accuracy was the photointerpretation of the orthophotomap. The overall accuracy with data division into 6 classes amounted to 65%; while divided into 2 classes: sealed and non-sealed reached 95%. The evaluation results accuracy may form the basis for future improvements in evaluation methods impervious surface.