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Małgorzata Jeżewska and Katarzyna Trzmiel

Impact of Seed-Transmitted Viruses on Quality of Cereal Seeds

Among seed-transmitted cereal viruses the most important is Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), infecting barley. Investigations on the occurrence of BSMV in Poland have been carried out in the Institute of Plant Protection in Poznań since 2000. The studies aimed at the evaluation of the BSMV distribution in plant material, the rate of its seed transmission in different barley cultivars and the assessment of the effect of barley infection on the yield. The potential risk of BSMV occurrence for barley crops was discussed. The rate of infection by two seed-transmitted viruses, Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), in Poland was investigated in view of the risk assessment.

Open access

Małgorzata Jeżewska and Katarzyna Trzmiel

Studies on Cereal Soil-Borne Viruses in Poland

Four soil-borne cereal viruses have been identified in Poland, so far: Soil-borne cereal mosaic virus (SBCMV), Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV), Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV). SBCMV was identified in 1993 as a dangerous pathogen of winter cereals and became the object of special interest. Studies on the virus included its biological and molecular characterization, and investigations of the response of winter wheat and winter triticale cultivars on the SBCMV infection. Results of preliminary experiments aiming at the evaluation of the response of winter barley cultivars on barley yellow mosaic viruses were also presented.

Open access

Marzena Jeżewska-Zychowicz, Maria Jeznach and Małgorzata Kosicka-Gębska

The aim of the study was to examine to what degree the consumers’ attitudes towards food and health influence their interest in sweets with special health-promoting properties, and to evaluate the effect of age, gender, education and family income on the interest in this kind of sweets. The research was carried out on a representative sample of 1000 adult Polish consumers. The survey instrument consisted of questions assessing consumers’ interest in sweets, their preferences and attitudes towards sweets, paying attention to sweets labeled as having specific nutritional properties, and acceptance of additional ingredients aimed at improving health properties of sweets.

The research revealed that over half of the population declared no interest in new chocolate-coated products with special health properties. Moreover, almost 4/5 of respondents did not pay attention to or buy any sweets labeled as having specific nutritional properties. The most accepted components improving health properties of sweets were vitamins, then fibre and minerals. The declared sweetness preferences did not show any statistically significant correlation with the consumers’ interest in sweets with health-promoting properties. Significantly higher number of respondents who did not use food as a reward and who could not formulate their opinions on health effect of sweets, declared attention paid to sweets labeled as having health-promoting properties or purchase of these products.

Open access

Lidia Zielińska, Katarzyna Trzmiel and Małgorzata Jeżewska

Plant viruses create many changes in the morphology of the plant cell once the infection process has begun. This paper describes and compares the ultrastructural changes induced in maize cells by two isolates of Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Spanish (MDMV-Sp) and Polish (MDMV-P), and one isolate of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) at 10 and 42 days post-inoculation: the concentration and arrangement of virus particles, inclusion bodies associated with infection, and other cytological alterations. The most important difference between maize cells infected with MDMV isolates and with SCMV-P1 was in the form of cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions. In cells infected with MDMV only typical inclusions such as pinwheels and scrolls were observed, but laminar aggregates were also present in SCMV-infected cells. No virus particles were found in plant cell organelles. Specific virion arrangements occurred in cells infected with MDMV-Sp and SCMV. The most interesting new finding was of specific amorphous inclusions in the cytoplasm of MDMV-Sp-infected cells, which clearly differentiated the two MDMV isolates studied.

Open access

Małgorzata Jeżewska, Katarzyna Trzmiel and Aleksandra Zarzyńska-Nowak

Abstract

A Polish isolate of Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV-Pol1) was characterized by limited pathogenicity and a low concentration of virus particles in infected plant tissues. The aim of this research was to consider the possibility of seed-transmission dissemination of the virus. Seeds of winter wheat cv. Muszelka served as material for the studies. Two methods were involved in the diagnostics of seedlings grown from potentially infected seeds: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as the screening assay and immuno-capture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) for molecular confirmation of the infection. RNA1 and RNA2 of SBWMV-Pol1 were detected in 6 out of 1,410 plants submitted to diagnostic procedures. The possibility of seed transmission of SBWMV-Pol1 was discussed.

Open access

Przemysław Strażyński, Maria Ruszkowska, Małgorzata Jeżewska and Katarzyna Trzmiel

Evaluation of The Autumn Infection of Winter Barley with Barley Yellow Dwarf Viruses Transmitted by Anholocyclic forms of Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid Rhopalosiphum Padi L. in Poland

Research was carried out to determine the extent of anholocyclic forms of bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi on winter barley, and to estimate the level of infection of winter barley crops with Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) viruses. Observations were made in 12 Polish regions. Each region is made up of four distinct locations, with different temperatures. The 12 observed regions were: Lubuskie, Dolnośląskie, Opolskie, Śląskie, Małopolskie, Podkarpackie, Wielkopolskie, Łódzkie, Mazowieckie, Lubelskie, Warmińsko-Mazurskie and Podlaskie. The research was carried out during the period of colonization of plants by aphids. Anholocyclic forms of R. padi were found on winter barley crops in all regions, with the exception of the Podlaskie area. Samples of plants were collected and tested for virus occurrence by ELISA. In 2007, the detection of BYD viruses in aphids feeding on winter barley was performed using the PCR technique. Virus diagnostics revealed the prevalence of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) over Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (BYDV-MAV), in 2006 and 2007. Aphid vectors of BYD viruses were the most numerous in all the locations of the Opolskie region.

Open access

Grażyna Jeżewska-Witkowska, Beata Horecka, Andrzej Jakubczak, Kornel Kasperek, Brygida Ślaska, Monika Bugno-Poniewierska and Małgorzata Piórkowska

Abstract

This study was designed to determine the degree of genetic distinctiveness between farmed and wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Analysis of polymorphism in 16 microsatellite sequences led to the conclusion that red foxes raised on Polish farms and wild foxes living in Poland are two groups of genetically distinct animals. Farmed Polish foxes are genetically more similar to the population of wild animals from North America than they are to the free-living population in Poland, as confirmed by the fact that the farmed animals are descended from animals raised in Canada.

The small genetic distance between wild Canadian foxes (indicated as the progenitor of farmed Polish foxes) and farmed Polish foxes possibly suggests that the differences between the farmed and wild Polish populations may result from the fact that Canadian and Polish foxes took separate evolutionary paths.

Open access

Kornel Kasperek, Beata Horecka, Andrzej Jakubczak, Brygida Ślaska, Magdalena Gryzińska, Monika Bugno-Poniewierska, Małgorzata Piórkowska and Grażyna Jeżewska-Witkowska

Abstract

The aim of this study was to detect possible differences between farmed and wild-living raccoon dogs. Analysis of polymorphism in 15 microsatellite sequences led to the conclusion that raccoon dogs raised on Polish farms and wild raccoon dogs living in Poland are two genetically distinct groups of animals. Wild Polish raccoon dogs are genetically more similar to the population of wild animals from the Kaliningrad Region than to farmed animals. The analysis of microsatellite loci showed clear genetic differences between farmed and wild-living populations of raccoon dog, despite only 50 years of isolation of the two groups of animals. The farmed population was characterized by higher genetic variation than the wild-living population. On the basis of the analyses three microsatellite loci (INU014, Ren13J22 and Ren41D20) were proposed for determination of the origin of animals that have escaped from farms.