The dietary preferences can enhance or reduce negative consequences of tobacco smoking. Thus, the smoking behavior and dietary habits of 99 patients treated against pulmonary, cardiological and gastroenterological diseases in specialist outpatient clinics in Rzeszów were analyzed. The survey questionnaire examined the relation between tobacco smoking and dietary preferences (quantity and regularity of food intake, and frequency of consumption of several foodstuffs) as well as health effects of smoking. Among the respondents, 48% were currently smoking (smokers), 16% declared themselves as formerly smoking ex-smokers) and 35% did not smoke (non-smokers). The cardiovascular and respiratory health problems were more common in smokers group, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05). Smokers’ diet was low in healthy kind of food (i.e. vegetables, fruit, dairy product, antioxidative spices) and simultaneously was abundant in meat, strong coffee and alcohol (p<0.05) compared to non-smokers. For the ex-smokers greater attention to proper diet composition was observed. Based on the obtained results nutritional guidelines have been formulated to reduce the negative effects of smoking.
The transfer of toxic metals from soil to honey was studied based on two different areas of the Podkarpackie region located in the south-east part of Poland: U-urbanized and E-ecologically pure. The metal content was determined using the ICP-OES method with prior microwave mineralization of the soil, plant (goldenrod, dandelion, rapeseed, tilia and fir), bee bodies and honey samples collected from 10 sampling points (U-5 and E-5). The impact of soil pH on heavy metal mobility was also evaluated. It was found that Podkarpackie soils are less contaminated with heavy metals as compared to other regions of Poland and only in the case of cadmium an enhancement of the natural background level was observed. The migration of heavy metals, especially cadmium, in the soil-plant-bee-honey food chain was accelerated by soil acidity (p<0.05). The influence of human activity (region development) on heavy metals concentrations was not significant (p>0.05). Based on bioaccumulation factors, goldenrod and dandelion plants were confirmed as cadmium accumulators. It was also confirmed that the bodies of bees act as an effective barrier to the migration of heavy metals from the environment to honey, due to this, honey is free from these metals and safe for human consumption.