Małgorzata Dżugan, Bernadeta Błażej and Monika Tomczyk
The dietary preferences can enhance or reduce negative consequences of tobacco smoking. Thus, the smoking behavior and dietary habits of 99 patients treated against pulmonary, cardiological and gastroenterological diseases in specialist outpatient clinics in Rzeszów were analyzed. The survey questionnaire examined the relation between tobacco smoking and dietary preferences (quantity and regularity of food intake, and frequency of consumption of several foodstuffs) as well as health effects of smoking. Among the respondents, 48% were currently smoking (smokers), 16% declared themselves as formerly smoking ex-smokers) and 35% did not smoke (non-smokers). The cardiovascular and respiratory health problems were more common in smokers group, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05). Smokers’ diet was low in healthy kind of food (i.e. vegetables, fruit, dairy product, antioxidative spices) and simultaneously was abundant in meat, strong coffee and alcohol (p<0.05) compared to non-smokers. For the ex-smokers greater attention to proper diet composition was observed. Based on the obtained results nutritional guidelines have been formulated to reduce the negative effects of smoking.