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  • Author: Małgorzata Czarny-Działak x
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The aim of this work was to assess knowledge of and to identify awareness in second-year students of biology, biotechnology and tourism and recreation, regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food. The analysis of obtained results shows that about 98% of respondents know the concept of GMO and highly appreciate their knowledge of this topic. The main source of knowledge about GMO for the students is the Internet and the University. It is worth noting that 59% of respondents are aware of the use of GMO in food, while more than half do not know how the GMO in food should be labeled. In particular, students of biotechnology showed a distinctive knowledge about GMO. Over half of students of the Jan Kochanowski University in the fields of biology, biotechnology, and tourism and recreation (55%) recognized that the use of GMO poses a threat to human health.


Medical waste is mostly generated by health care centres and veterinary, research and pharmacological facilities as well as laboratories. As the number people using home treatment rises from year to year, and the number of aesthetic medicine offices increases, the problem of potentially hazardous waste affects an increasingly larger population, and can no longer be restricted to the qualified hospital staff. Medical waste falls within the group of hazardous waste since it poses environmental threat of epidemiological contamination with pathogens and pathogenic bacteria. The article presents the classification and properties of medical waste and their impact on the environment. The legal status regarding the utilization of such waste in Poland was discussed as well.