Search Results

1 - 10 of 20 items

  • Author: Małgorzata Bruska x
Clear All Modify Search
Historical background of umbilical stem cell culture

Abstract

Umbilical cord is a waste material, and therefore does not raise ethical concerns related to its use for research and medicine. Stem cells from umbilical cord have a significant advantage over cells from other sources. First, the umbilical cord is an infinite source of stem cells, because it can be taken theoretically during each delivery. Secondly, acquisition of umbilical cord is a non-invasive, safe procedure for mother and child. Thirdly, the transplantation of umbilical cord stem cells is associated with a lower risk of infection and a less-frequent “graft versus host” reaction. In this work, the authors present a historical background of research on the cell from its discovery to modern times characterized by highly advanced methods of obtaining stem cells from umbilical cord and from other sources.

Open access
Genes regulating programmed cell death are significantly upregulated in porcine immature oocytes

Abstract

Correct maturation of the oocyte is crucial for further fertilization and embryogenesis. It comprises of both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, during which the proteins, nutrients and mRNAs are assembled. Cumulus cells are connected with the oocyte via gap-junctions, which enable bi-directional transfer of molecules, forming cumulus-oocyte complex (COC). The expression pattern in CCs is thought to resemble the genes expressed in the oocyte. The CCs surrounding the gamete of high developmental competence have an increased expression of apoptotic markers. Therefore, our aim in this study was to determine whether any apoptosis-related genes are upregulated in porcine oocytes before or after IVM. We isolated COCs from 45 pubertal crossbred gilts, performed brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining and analyzed the gene expression pattern in oocytes before and after IVM with the use of microarray analysis. The results include 419 differentially expressed transcripts, 25 of which belong to „regulation of apoptosis” and „regulation of cell death” GO BP terms. This set of genes includes BCLAF1, EIF2AK3, KLF10, MIF, MAP3K1, NOTCH2, TXNIP and APP, all of which have been upregulated in immature porcine oocytes. Our results suggest that they play part in porcine oocyte maturation and could be used as potential markers of female gamete’s developmental competence. This knowledge could serve as a basis to improve ART in pigs.

Open access
Analysis of expression of genes responsible for regulation of cellular proliferation and migration – microarray approach based on porcine oocyte model

Abstract

The formation of mammalian oocytes begins in the ovary during fetal development. The proper development of oocytes requires close communication with surrounding somatic cells, the substances they emit allow proper maturation of oocytes. Somatic cumulus (CC) cells and oocytes form cumulus-oocyte (COC) complexes.

In this study, the Affymetrix microarray analysis was used to investigate changes in gene expression occurring in oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM). The aim of the study was to examine oocyte genes involved in two ontological groups, “regulation of cell migration” and “regulation of cell proliferation” discovered by the microarray method.

We found a reduced expression of all 28 genes tested in the ontological groups: ID2, VEGFA, BTG2, CCND2, EDNRA, TGFBR3, GJA, LAMA2, RTN4, CDK6, IHH, MAGED1, INSR, CD9, PTGES, TXNIP, ITGB1, SMAD4, MAP3K1, NOTCH2 , IGFBP7, KLF10, KIT, TPM1, PLD1, BTG3, CD47 and MITF. We chose the most regulated genes down the IVM culture, and pointed out those belonging to two ontological groups.

Increased expression of the described genes before IVM maturation may indicate the important role of these genes in the process of ovum maturation. After the maturation process, the proteins produced by them did not play such an important role. In summary, the study provides us with many genes that can serve as molecular markers of oocyte processes associated with in vitro maturation. This knowledge can be used for detailed studies on the regulation of oocyte maturation processes.

Running title: Genes regulating cellular migration and proliferation in porcine oocytes

Open access
Genes encoding proteins regulating fatty acid metabolism and cellular response to lipids are differentially expressed in porcine luminal epithelium during long-term culture

Abstract

Among many factors, the epithelium lining the oviductal lumenis very important for the development of the oocyte and its subsequent fertilization. The oviductal epithelium is characterized by the presence of ciliary cells, supporting the movement of cumulus-oocyte complexes towards the uterus. By interacting with the semen, the epithelium of the fallopian tube makes the sperm acquire the ability to fertilize. So far, the exact molecular mechanisms of these changes have not been known. Hence, understanding the metabolism of oviduct epithelial cells and the level of expression of individual groups of genes seems to be a way to deepen the knowledge about the broadly understood reproduction.

In our research, we decided to culture oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) in vitro for a long period of time. After 24h, 7, 15 and 30 days, the OECs were harvested, with their RNA isolated. Transcriptomic changes were analyzed using microarrays. The “cellular response to lipid” group was represented by the following genes: MUC1, CYP24A1, KLF4, IL24, SNAI2, CXCL10, PPARD, TNC, ABCA10, while the genes belonging to the “cellular lipid metabolic processes” were: LIPG, ARSK, ACADL, FADS3, P2RX7, ACSS2, PPARD, KITLG, SPTLC3, ERBB3, KLF4, CRABP2. Additionally, PPARD and ACADL were members of the “fatty acid beta-oxidation” ontology group. Our study describes genes that are not directly related to fertility processes. However, significant changes in their expression in in vitro cultured OECs may indicate their usefulness as markers of OECs’ physiological processes.

Running title: Fatty acids changes in porcine oviductal epithelial cells in in vitro cultivation

Open access
Ion homeostasis and transport are regulated by genes differentially expressed in porcine buccal pouch mucosal cells during long-term culture in vitro – a microarray approach

Abstract

The oral mucosa is a compound tissue composed of several cells types, including fibroblasts and keratinocytes, that are characterized by different morphology, as well as biochemical and metabolomic properties. The oral mucosal cells are the most important factors mediated between transport and drugs delivery. The changes in cellular ion homeostasis may significantly affect the bioavailability of administrated drugs and their transport across the mucous membrane. Therefore we investigated the expression profile of genes involved in ion transport and homeostasis in porcine buccal pouch mucosal cells.

The oral mucosa was separated surgically and isolated enzymatically. The cells were examined during long-term in vitro culture (IVC). The cultured cells were collected at 7, 15 and 30 days of IVC and subsequently transferred to RNA isolation and next, the gene expression profile was measured using Affymetrix microarray assays.

In the results, we can extract genes belonging to four ontology groups: “ion homeostasis”, “ion transport”, “metal ion transport”, and “inorganic ion homeostasis”. For TGFB1 and CCL2, we observed up-regulation after 7 days of IVC, down-regulation after 15 days of IVC and upregulation again after 30 days of IVC. The ATP13A3, ATP1B1, CCL8, LYN, STEAP1, PDPN, PTGS2, and SLC5A3genes showed high activity after day 7 of IVC, and in the days 15 and 30 of IVC showed low activity.

We showed an expression profile of genes associated with the effects of ion influence on the porcine normal oral mucosal cell development in IVC. These studies may be the starting point for further research into oral diseases and will allow for the comparison of the gene expression profile of normal and disease altered cells.

Open access
Genes involved in angiogenesis and circulatory system development are differentially expressed in porcine epithelial oviductal cells during long-term primary in vitro culture – a transcriptomic study

Abstract

An oviduct is an essential organ for gamete transport, oocyte maturation, fertilization, spermatozoon capacitation and early embryo development. The epithelium plays an important role in oviduct functioning. The products of secretory cells provide an optimal environment and influence gamete activities and embryonic development. The oviduct physiology changes during the female cycle, thus, the ratio of the secreted molecules in the oviduct fluid differs between phases. In this study, a differential gene expression in porcine oviduct epithelial cells was examined during the long-term primary in vitro culture. The microarray expression analysis revealed 2552 genes, 1537 of which were upregulated and 995 were downregulated after 7 days of culture, with subsequent changes in expression during 30 day-long culture. The obtained genes were classified into 8 GO BP terms, connected with angiogenesis and circulatory system development, extracted by DAVID software. Among all genes, 10 most up-regulated and 10 most down-regulated genes were selected for further investigation. Interactions between genes were indicated by STRING software and REACTOME FIViz application to the Cytoscape 3.6.0 software. Most of the genes belonged to more than one ontology group. Although studied genes are mostly responsible for angiogenesis and circulatory system development, they can also be found to be expressed in processes connected with fertilization and early embryo development. The latter function is focused on more, considering the fact that these genes were expressed in epithelial cells of the fallopian tube which is largely responsible for reproductive processes.

Open access
The differentiation and transdifferentiation of epithelial cells in vitro – is it a new strategy in regenerative biomedicine?

Abstract

In modern medical research, stem cells are one of the main focuses, believed to be able to provide the solution to many currently unsolvable medical cases. However, their extraordinary potential for differentiation creates much obstacles in their potential application in clinical environment, without understanding the whole array of molecular mechanisms that drive the processes associated with their development and maturation. Because of that, there is a large need for studies that concern the most basic levels of those processes. Progenitor stem cells are a favorable target, as they are relatively lineage committed, making the amount of signaling required to reach the final form much lower. Their presence in the adult organism is also an advantage in their potential use, as they can be extracted without the need for storage from the moment of pre-natal development or birth. Epithelial tissues, because of their usual location or function, exhibit extraordinary level of plasticity and proliferative potential. That fact makes them one of the top candidates for use in applications such as tissue engineering, cell based therapies, regenerative and reconstructive medicine. The potential clinical application, however, need to be based on well developed methods, in order to provide an effective treatment without causing major side effects. To achieve that goal, a large amount of research, aiming to analyze the molecular basics of proliferation and differentiation of epithelial stem cells, and stem cells in general, needs to be conducted.

Open access
Analysis of fructose and mannose – regulatory peptides signaling pathway in porcine epithelial oviductal cells (OECs) primary cultured long-term in vitro

Abstract

The morphological and biochemical modification of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) belongs to the compound process responsible for proper oocytes transport and successful fertilization. However, the main mechanisms which regulated this process are still not entirely known. Moreover, the OECs metabolism, which may be identified as the “cellular activity” marker, is poorly recognized. In this study we investigated the fructose and mannose metabolic pathway in porcine OECs primary long-term cultured in vitro.

In our study, we employ a primary long term in vitro culture (IVC) and microarray approach (the Affymetrix microarray were used for analysis of transcriptomic profile of OECs) for expression levels analysis.

We found that from the whole analyzed transcriptome, 1537 genes were upregulated and 995 were down regulated after 7 days of culture, 1471 genes were upregulated and 1061 were downregulated after 15 days of culture and 1329 genes were upregulated and 1203 were downregulated after 30 days of culture. Moreover, the differential expression of SORD, FPGT, PFKFB4, TPI1, MPI, ALDOC, HK2 and PFKFB3 at 24 hours, 7 day, 15 day and 30 day, was also observed.

We suggested that fructose and mannose metabolism may be important molecular bio-marker of porcine OECs capability in in vitro model. The metabolic profile is significantly accompanied by cells proliferation in vitro. The transcriptomic profile of SORD, FPGT, PFKFB4, TPI1, MPI, ALDOC, HK2 and PFKFB3 expression may be identified as “fingerprint” of fructose and mannose metabolism in OECs as well as involved in cellular in vitro developmental capacity in pigs.

Open access
The blood vessels development, morphogenesis and blood circulation are three ontologic groups highly up-regulated in porcine oocytes before in vitro maturation

Abstract

The mammalian oocytes undergo significant biochemical and structural modifications during maturation both in vitro and in vivo. These changes involve chromatin reorganization and modification within metabolic status of cytoplasmic organelles. After oocytes’ successful maturation the substantially increased storage of RNA was observed. Moreover, the early embryo interaction with maternal endometrial tissue after fertilization is up to now considered as the main marker of proper embryo implantation and early growth. In this study, we first investigated the expression profile of genes involved in blood vessel formation and blood circulation in porcine oocytes before and after in vitro maturation.

The cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from pubertal Landrace gilts and classified as before in vitro maturation (in Vivo) or after in vitro maturation (in Vitro). The RNA was isolated from these two experimental groups and analyzed using Affymetrix microarrays.

We found an increased expression of genes involved in ontological groups such as “blood circulation” (TPM1, ECE1, ACTA2, EPHX2, EDNRA, NPR2, MYOF, TACR3, VEGFA, GUCY1B3), “blood vessel development” (ANGPTL4, CYR61, SEMA5A, ID1, RHOB, RTN4, IHH, ANGPT2, EDNRA, TGFBR3, MYO1E, MMP14), and “blood vessels morphogenesis” (ANGPT2, as well as other common transcripts) in in Vivo group as compared to decreased expression of these genes in in Vitro group of oocytes.

It has been suggested that investigated genes undergo significant expression before in vitro maturation, when enhanced storage of large amount of RNA takes place. Creating templates for synthesis of proteins is required for formation of fully mature gametes and early embryo growth. Therefore we hypothesized that the processes of vascularization and/or angiogenesis reach a high activity in immature oocytes and are distinct from achievement of maturational stage by oocytes in pigs.

Open access
Epithelium morphogenesis and oviduct development are regulated by significant increase of expression of genes after long-term in vitro primary culture – a microarray assays

Abstract

The correct oviductal development and morphogenesis of its epithelium are crucial factors influencing female fertility. Oviduct is involved in maintaining an optimal environment for gametes and preimplantation embryo development; secretory oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) synthesize components of oviductal fluid. Oviductal epithelium also participates in sperm binding and its hyperactivation. For better understanding of the genetic bases that underlay porcine oviductal development, OECs were isolated from porcine oviducts and established long-term primary culture. A microarray approach was utilized to determine the differentially expressed genes during specific time periods. Cells were harvested on day 7, 15 and 30 of in vitro primary culture and their RNA was isolated. Gene expression was analyzed and statistical analysis was performed. 48 differentially expressed genes belonging to “tube morphogenesis”, “tube development”, “morphogenesis of an epithelium”, “morphogenesis of branching structure” and “morphogenesis of branching epithelium” GO BP terms were selected, of which 10 most upregulated include BMP4, ARG1, SLIT2, FGFR1, DAB2, TNC, EPAS1, HHEX, ITGB3 and LOX. The results help to shed light on the porcine oviductal development and its epithelial morphogenesis, and show that after long-term culture the OECs still proliferate and maintain their tube forming properties.

Open access