A laboratory test was carried out to examine the influence of various storage containers and periods on the germination percentage of black gram seed. In this research, three seed containers, viz. sealed tin container, poly bag and gunny bag were used to store the seeds, as well as seeds were stored for three different storage periods, viz. 15, 30 and 45 days and thereby conducted germination tests. The results revealed that storage and storage periods considerably influenced the germination percentage (GP) of black gram seed. The highest GP of 87.73% was found in the seeds stored at sealed tin container, while the lowest GP (71.08%) was observed in the seeds stored in gunny bag. Among the three storage containers, the GP reduced rapidly in the seeds stored in gunny bags (6.52%), followed by poly bag (18.98%). The maximum values of GP (85.43%) of black gram seed were recorded when 15 days after storage (DAS), whereas the lowest GP (68.33%) was at 45 DAS, and the GP decreased noticeably with the increase of storage periods from 15 to 30 and to 45 DAS. In combination influence of storage containers and storage periods, the maximum GP (85.90%) was recorded at when seeds kept in sealed tin container with stored for the shortest duration (15 DAS), while the minimum (58.11%) was recorded in the seeds stored in gunny bag for the longest period with 45 DAS. Seeds stored in the sealed tin containers exhibited an excellent performance regarding GP with the shortest storage periods and, thereby, black gram should be kept in sealed tin containers or like this air tight containers for storage, as well as seeds should be sun dried after a short period for maintaining seed quality.
This paper presents an investigation of impact strength of sponge gourd, coir, and jute fibers reinforced epoxy resin-based composites. Impact strength of specimens, made of composites with various proportions of wt% ratio of resin and hardener, wt% of resin and hardener, wt% ratio of sponge gourd and jute, wt% ratio of sponge gourd and coir, was measured. Design of experiment was done by Taguchi method using four control factors with three levels. Effect of the above control factors on impact strength was examined and the best combinations of control factors are advised. Confirmation test was performed by using this combination and the percentage of contribution of the above factors on impact strength was investigated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Contour and interaction plots provide helpfully examines to explore the combined influences of different control factors on output characteristics. The regression equation represents a mathematical model that relates control factors with impact strength.
A laboratory experiment regarding germination and seedling growth test was conducted with three black gram genotypes tested under three salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM), for 10 days, in sand culture within small plastic pot, to investigate the germination and seedling growth characteristics. Different germination traits of all black gram genotypes, like germination percentage (GP), germination rate (GR), coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG) greatly reduced, as well as mean germination time (MGT) increased with increasing salt stress. At high salt stress, BARI Mash-3 provided the highest GP reduction (28.58%), while the lowest was recorded (15.79% to control) in BARI Mash-1. Salinity have the negative impact on shoot and root lengths, fresh and dry weights. The highest (50.32% to control) and lowest reduction (36.39%) of shoot length were recorded in BARI Mash-2 and BARI Mash-1, respectively, under 150 mM NaCl saline conditions. There were significant reduction of root lengths, root fresh and dry weight, shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight in all genotypes under saline condition. The genotypes were arranged as BARI Mash-1 > BARI Mash-3 > BARI Mash-2, with respect to salinity tolerance.
Maize (Zea mays L.) constitutes one of the most important crops worldwide with multi-billion dollar annual revenue. The plant is however a good substrate for growth, development and activity of filamentous fungi. A large number of fungal species causes spoilage and accumulation of mycotoxins. Plants restrict the hyphal growth by producing pathogenesis related proteins. So far 17 groups of such proteins are identified. PR-5 group comprises of the thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs), which have diverse modes of actions and act at various stages of fungal attack. Zeamatin-like protein (ZLP) is a member of TLPs, which is basically localized in seeds with enhanced expression during physiological growth and cellular differentiation. However a basal quantity is found in the leaves of many crop plants. Here we report the response of maize plant tissues against A. niger inoculation by measuring the variation in expression profile of a zeamatin-like gene. Conventional PCR coupled with RT-qPCR identifies a significant change in the expression magnitude of ZLP in pre- and post-inoculated plant samples. SDS-PAGE, followed by antimicrobial activities against A. niger, E.coli, P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, S. aureus and S. typhimurium, however, do not register a direct relationship with enhancement in gene expression. It is in line with the fact that response to pathogenesis in plants is a multigenic activity involving a series of responsible/induced genes. The assay developed is useful in primary sorting out of the maize hybrids with respect to their resistance against Aspergillus spp., especially in areas with high rate of incidence of fungal pathogenesis.
True Beam medical linear accelerator is capable of delivering flattening filter free (FFF) and with flattening filter (WFF) photon beams. True Beam linear accelerator is equipped with five photon beam energies (6 FFF, 6 WFF, 10 FFF, 10 WFF and 15 WFF) as well as six electron beam energies (6 MeV, 9 MeV, 12 MeV, 15 MeV and 18 MeV). The maximum dose rate for the 6 WFF, 10 WFF and 15 WFF is 600 MU/min, whereas 6 FFF has a maximum dose rate of 1400 MU/min and 10 FFF with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min. In this report we discussed the open beam dosimetric characteristics of True Beam medical linear accelerator with FFF and WFF beam. All the dosimetric data (i.e. depth dose, cross-line profiles, diagonal profiles, output factors, MLC transmission, etc.) for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10 MV, 10 FFF and 15 MV were measured and compared with the published data of the True Beam. Multiple detectors were used in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The measured data has a good consistency with the reference golden beam data. The measured beam quality index for all the beams are in good agreement with the published data. The percentage depth dose at 10 cm depth of all the available photon beams was within the tolerance of the Varian acceptance specification. The dosimetric data shows consistent and comparable results with the published data of other True Beam linear accelerators. The dosimetric data provide us an appreciated perception and consistent among the published data and may be used for future references.
The experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 at the Regional Agricultural Research station, BARI, Ishurdi, Pabna, Bangladesh, to determine the water requirements of wheat on raised bed and the effect of different deficit irrigation on yield, water use efficiency and applied water productivity under raised bed wheat. This study consisted of following irrigation treatments: T1 = Irrigations up to 100% field capacity (FC) at crown root initiation (CRI), botting and grain filling stages (flat bed), T2 = Irrigations up to 100% FC at CRI, botting and grain filling stages on raised bed, T3 = Irrigations up to 80% FC at CRI, botting and grain filling stages on raised bed and T4 = Irrigations up to 60% FC at CRI, botting and grain filling stages on raised bed and laid out in a randomize complete block design with three replications. The result showed that significant effect of irrigation treatments were observed on plant height, spike per m2 and grain yield. Highest grain yield (4.66 t/ha) was obtained from treatment, irrigations up to 100% FC at CRI, botting and grain filling stages on raised bed, followed by irrigation up to 100% FC at same stages on flat bed. At raised bed wheat cultivation saving 14.30% water with increasing 15.66% grain yield than flat bed. Besides, comparing deficit irrigation (20% and 40% of full irrigation) and full irrigation condition on raised bed seeding system water use could be reduced about 4.18% to 5.57%, while scarifying 18.20% to 32.33% grain yield, where reduced 14.17% to 27.54% water use efficiency. Maximum applied water productivity 1.81 kg m−3 was observed in raised bed full irrigation condition. The rate of daily evaporation started to increase as the temperature started to rise and humidity started to decrease during the crop growing period. The results will be helpful for taking policy decision regarding efficient irrigation and water management under prevailing water scarce situation.
Carbon emission is the biggest problem all over the world. The actualizing of low carbon emission in the bread kitchen and dessert shop segment permits the difference in its mechanical procedure through the improvement of an eco-proficient framework. This study was to line up bread and cake with fully completely different wheat quality, baking time, and temperature through low carbon emission. The prepared samples were chemically analyzed for wet content, ash content, compound content, and organoleptic. Among the four processed cake products based on each parameter tested organoleptically, cupcake products were the most preferable one. Bread products made with substitution of 50% have been received by consumer panelists. The results of this study were also in line with the research conducted by which resulted in a substitution of spinach flour substitution of up to 60% still acceptable by panelists. Sponge cake from flour can still be received by panelists with 50% substitution. 12% of moisture will help 5 days’ self-life without chemical preservatives. The oven is the largest of the three consumers and typically accounts for between 35% and 45% of the total site carbon emissions. The dark cake pan, which holds in more heat than light-colored baking pans and bakes our cake batter faster. Considering that the most significant dark non-stick pan was suggested for baking low carbon emission, it will be reducing the baking temperature by 25° F. Good practice opportunities can be delivered for various plant/equipment utility serving could deliver on average a 10% saving in total CO2 emissions for the sector. This would speak to a CO2 decrease of 57 000 ton CO2 / year over the world.
Fruits and vegetables are important sources of nutrients for mankind. Among the various fruits available in Bangladesh, mango occupies a vital place in the human nutrition for its delicious taste and higher nutritious value. In this study, five mango varieties, viz. Fazli, Amrupali, Langra, Gopalbogh and Misribogh, were tested to evaluate the quality of these mango varieties available in Northern Bangladesh. Physiochemical characteristics, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total solids, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total sugars and ascorbic acid contents were evaluated. The results showed that there were significant (p< 0.05) differences among mangoes of all varieties for physicochemical parameters. In case of proximate composition, the mango variety Amrupali showed the highest ash content (2.34±0.15) and fat content (1.18±0.13). Protein content (0.94±0.12) and total fiber (2.67%) content was shown to be the highest by Gopalbogh and Misribogh, respectively. The selected mango varieties contained TSS of 12.87~20.55oBrix, pH of 4.45~4.67, titrable acidity of 0.07~0.42%, reducing sugar of 8.40~15.43%, non-reducing sugar of 9.24~10.48%, and total sugarof 18.88~25.12%. The study findings would be helpful for the consumers, dietitian and industry policymakers.
Aim: To compare the dosimetric advantage of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized lung tumor between deep inspiration breath hold technique and free breathing technique.
Materials and methods: We retrospectively included ten previously treated lung tumor patients in this dosimetric study. All the ten patients underwent CT simulation using 4D-CT free breathing (FB) and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) techniques. Plans were created using three coplanar full modulated arc using 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) bream with a dose rate of 1400 MU/min. Same dose constraints for the target and the critical structures for a particular patient were used during the plan optimization process in DIBH and FB datasets. We intend to deliver 50 Gy in 5 fractions for all the patients. For standardization, all the plans were normalized at target mean of the planning target volume (PTV). Doses to the critical structures and targets were recorded from the dose volume histogram for evaluation.
Results: The mean right and left lung volumes were inflated by 1.55 and 1.60 times in DIBH scans compared to the FB scans. The mean internal target volume (ITV) increased in the FB datasets by 1.45 times compared to the DIBH data sets. The mean dose followed by standard deviation (x̄ ± σx̄) of ipsilateral lung for DIBH-SBRT and FB-SBRT plans were 7.48 ± 3.57 (Gy) and 10.23 ± 4.58 (Gy) respectively, with a mean reduction of 36.84% in DIBH-SBRT plans. Ipsilateral lung were reduced to 36.84% in DIBH plans compared to FB plans.
Conclusion: Significant dose reduction in ipsilateral lung due to the lung inflation and target motion restriction in DIBH-SBRT plans were observed compare to FB-SBRT. DIBH-SBRT plans demonstrate superior dose reduction to the normal tissues and other critical structures.