Our study was conducted by consulting angioCT sites made on a CT GE LightSpeed VCT64 Slice CT and a CT GE LightSpeed 16 Slice CT, following the path and relationships of the descending thoracic aorta against the vertebral column, outside diameters thereof at the thoracic vertebrae T4, T7, T12 and posterior intercostal arteries characteristics. The origin of of the descending thoracic aorta we found most commonly on the left flank of the lower edge of the vertebral body T4, but I have encountered cases where it had come above the lower edge of T4 on level of intervertebral disc T4-T5 or even at the upper edge of T5 vertebral body. At thoracic vertebra T4, on a total of 30 cases, the descending thoracic aorta present a diameter of 20.0 to 32.6 mm, values that correspond to male gender and to females diameter ranging from 25.5 to 27, 4 mm. At level of T7 thoracic vertebra, thoracic aorta present a diameter of 19.6 to 29.5 mm, values found in men, in women the diameter being from 21.9 to 25.2 mm. At thoracic vertebra T12, on a total of 27 cases, the descending thoracic aorta present a diameter of 17.6 to 27.7 mm, in males the diameter was from 17.6 to 27.7 mm and females diameter ranging from 21.1 to 25.2. The length of the descending thoracic aorta was from 18.40 to 19.41 cm.
In the present work, powder zinc oxide samples were prepared by varying NaOH concentration (0.1 M – 0.4 M) using wet-chemical co-precipitation method. As-synthesized ZnO was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO samples has been revealed from XRD studies. This study further suggests reduction in crystallite size from 40 nm to 23 nm with an increase in NaOH concentration which is confirmed by FESEM. PL and Raman spectroscopy studies of these samples show significant peak shift towards the higher and lower energy respectively, with maximum PL emission between 400 nm and 470 nm region of the visible spectrum. Noticeable inverse relationship between optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles and NaOH concentration may be attributed to the rapid nucleation during the synthesis process. With these remarkable properties, ZnO nanoparticles may find applications in nanoelectronic devices, sensors, nanomedicine, GATE dielectrics, photovoltaic devices, etc.
As TiO2 is suitable for electronic and electrical applications, in the present work the authors have successfully modified TiO2 by adding silver (Ag) to form titanium oxide-silver oxide (TiO2:Ag2O) nanocomposite samples by using sol-gel technique. Characterizations of these composites have been performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD study revealed that the crystal structure of the samples consisted of tetragonal and cubic phases. This study further showed an increment in the average crystallite size from 8 nm to 38 nm with an increase in Ag concentration. The increase in crystallite size has been confirmed additionally by SEM and AFM. The increment in the average particle size of the samples may be attributed to an increase in silver molarity in the TiO2 matrix. Significant red shift in the absorption edge has been observed, causing reduction in the energy bandgap of the composites from 3.89 eV to 3.46 eV with an increase in particle size which is evident from UV-Vis spectroscopic studies. This wide-band gap properties of the TiO2:Ag2O nanocomposite make it suitable for memory-storage devices and dielectric applications.
Rainfed wheat is generally grown in rotation with summer fallow in medium to high rainfall zone of Pothwar plateau of Pakistan. The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the impact of shallow and deep tillage practices, with and without herbicide (glyphosate) application, on moisture conservation and subsequent wheat yields. The study also aimed to examine the feasibility of substituting intensive shallow tillage with single application of glyphosate. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates and net plot size of 14 m x 10 m, during 2007 and 2008 at two locations i.e high and medium rainfall. Wheat cultivar “GA-2002” was planted as a test crop. The data showed the superiority of conservation tillage in terms of conservation of moisture and increasing grain yields. Results also elaborated that tillage cannot be completely eliminated for profitable fallow management. However, deep ploughing with moldboard followed by single application of glyphosate proved potential option for substituting shallow tillage carried out during summer (kharif). The additional benefits under this tillage system included saving in fuel, labour and lower depreciation and maintenance costs for tillage machinery in addition to unquantifiable environmental benefits.
Out of 750,000 known plants in the world, a major part are medicinal and aromatic plants - a source of raw material for folk and documented systems of medicines worldwide. The folk and documented medicine in India use about 6,000 plants, although, less than 50 species have been scientifically studied and cultivated to any sizeable extent. The main factor behind the slow pace of domestication of medicinal plants is the absence of knowledge on cultivation practices and lack of suitable technology. About 90% of the medicinal plants for trade are harvested from the wild and the demand for traditional medicinal plants is increasing rapidly. Continuous exploitation of several medicinal plant species from the wild has resulted in their population decline. Hence, an effective strategy is needed for their sustainable utilization and conservation. Cultivation is the most effective way of conservation. Cultivation can also ensure production of standardized raw materials. Thereby, enhances the quality of the manufactured products. The methods and techniques of modern chemical agriculture cannot be adopted for the cultivation of medicinal plants as they should be free from harmful residues. Pesticides and other harmful chemicals have been detected in some herbal products. Hence, to ensure a safe, residue-free and reliable material for use in herbal drug industry, there is an urgent need to adopt strategies for cultivation of medicinal plants that are consistent with principles of good agricultural practices.
Several techniques, in which different homogenous catalysts and procedures, that are in use for transesterification of a vegetable oil or an animal fat have been successful in synthesizing biodiesel, although with some certain limitations. For such a purpose, among the catalysts employed are acidic as well as basic catalysts. It has been found that acidic catalysts can be tolerant with a high content of free fatty acids found in those low value feedstock oils/fats to be transesterified, although some sort of pretreatment by means of esterification might be required in order to synthesize biodiesel. Moreover, with employing homogenous acidic catalysts, it seems that biodiesel purification procedures are simplified; thus, reducing synthesis cost. In fact, these features of homogenous acidic catalysts render them advantageous over basic ones. With basic homogenous catalysts this; however, has not been possible due to the development of saponification reaction. To effectively perform, such catalysts require that the content of free fatty acids in the feedstock oil/fat is minimal. This requirement is also applicable to the moisture level in the feedstock. In terms of corrosive effects; nevertheless, acidic catalysts are disadvantageous compared to basic ones.
Our study was conducted by the examination of angioCT’s, performing external measurements of aortic arch and the exo and endoaortic measurements of its three. The diameter of the thoracic aorta prior to the origin of the brachiocephalic arterial trunk was found with an average of 31.65 mm and below the left subclavian artery origin we found an average diameter of 24.3 mm. The brachiocephalic arterial trunk had an average diameter of 11.575 mm, 6.05 at carotid artery level and 9.05 mm at the level of the left subclavian artery. The endoaortic average diameter of the brachiocephalic arterial trunk: horizontally, 13.0 mm and vertically 11.7 mm; left common carotid artery horizontal diameter was 10.5 mm and 9.7 mm vertically and the left subclavian artery have 14.1 mm horizontally and 10.8 mm vertically.
In present work, we have studied kinetics of alkaline hydrolysis of 14 compounds, which are phenylcarbamic acid derivatives with integrated N-phenylpiperazine moiety in the structure. The compounds possessed moderate antiarrhythmic and antimycobacterial activity. Their hydrolysis was carried out in an aqueous medium ethanol sodium hydroxide solution. The course of the hydrolysis was observed spectrophotometrically in visible as well as in ultraviolet regions. The pseudo-first order rate constants were calculated at several temperatures. The values of the activation energy EA were determined by the Arrhenius equation. The rate of hydrolysis of the compounds under the study increase with the increase in temperature and it has been differentiated according to the substitution of N-phenylpiperazine as well as to the alkoxy substitution on phenyl ring.
Background. Diabetes mellitus is a massive, growing, silent epidemic that has the potential to cripple health services in all parts of the world. Currently, a diagnosis of diabetes is achieved by evaluating plasma glucose levels. Saliva offers some distinctive advantages. Whole saliva can be collected non-invasively and by individuals with limited training. The present study was aimed to estimate and correlate the plasma and salivary glucose levels in diabetic and non diabetic subjects, with special reference to age.
Method. The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of diabetics with BGL>200mg/dl and Group 2 consisted of diabetics with BGL 130-200mg/dl based on their random plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of healthy population as controls with BGL <130 mg/dl. 2 ml of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random plasma glucose levels and unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose
Results. The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in group 1 and group 2 diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary glucose levels show a significant correlation with plasma glucose levels between study populations, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glucose level in diabetic patients.
Conclusion. The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up.
Smart Grid (SG) is a major electricity trend expected to replace traditional electricity systems. SG has faster response to electricity malfunctions and improved utilization of consumed power, and it has two-way communication between providers and consumers. However, SG is vulnerable to attacks and requires robust authentication techniques to provide secure authenticity for its components. This paper analyses previous literature, comprising 27 papers on the status of SG authentication techniques, main components, and kinds of attacks. This paper also highlights the main requirements and challenges for developing authentication approaches for the SG system. This can serve as useful guidance for the development and deployment of authentication techniques for SG systems and helps practitioners select authentication approaches applicable to system needs.