Introducing a well-designed system of corporate governance is considered an effective tool to ensure the stability and resilience of a banking system. It was in 2006 when Bangladesh initiated its first corporate governance code (CG code). Despite trying to meet the code of enhancing the internal monitoring mechanisms and transparency in governance, it is apparent that the quality in bank credit portfolios continuously deteriorated. This paper aims to empirically analyze the impact of adopting the CG code on performance for eight years (2010–2017) of 21 major commercial banks of Bangladesh. In this case study, we suggest that the CG code may have given the Bangladeshi commercial banks an ill-incentive for the reduction of executive directors under the pressure of meeting a guideline to increase the ratio of independent directors. This incentive structure had a negative impact on bank performance during the period. Another finding is that the fundamental structure of ownership and control by sponsor directors remained unchanged during the period. This structure of maintaining the control of power by a group with its vested interest may have hindered the effectiveness of the CG code in Bangladesh. We suggest that the agenda of CG practices should go together with a policy for mitigating a potential bias under the ownership concentration because any attempt of adopting codified CG practices would be futile under the fundamental structure in Bangladesh.
International concern on bank capital and minimum capital adequacy was first raised in 1980, in the G-10 countries governors meeting at the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) to respond to a series of bank failures and financial instability observed in Western developed economies. Later, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) of the BIS proposed the Basel accord I, II and III in 1988, 2004 and 2010, respectively. Bangladesh Bank (BB) has introduced the ‘capital to risk weighted assets’-based approach for assessing the capital adequacy of banks in 1996 and later formally introduced the Basel framework in the early 2000s for its regulated banks. However, during Basel accord II and III implementation period (2009-2018), the banking industry accumulated huge non-performing loans which eroded its profitability. This creates a skepticism regarding any loopholes within the institutions. This paper argues that the naïve and excess reliance on External Credit Assessment Institutions (ECAIs’) credit rating in the process of adopting the Basel-type capital adequacy amounted to a risky strategy for the Bangladeshi banking industry in a sense that ECAIs allocate less efforts on accumulation of credit risk screening skills. We also document that the huge transaction cost and high coupon rate embedded within the debt instrument like the subordinated debt (sub-debt) issued by the regulated banks as Tier 2 capital might shrink the bank’s profitability and its contribution to the national exchequer. Little in the existing literature has been addressed to investigate the adoption of Basel regulations in Bangladesh from the institutional lens. This paper critically reviewed the Bangladeshi ECAIs regulations and sub-debt regulations to fill this research gap.
A laboratory test was carried out to examine the influence of various storage containers and periods on the germination percentage of black gram seed. In this research, three seed containers, viz. sealed tin container, poly bag and gunny bag were used to store the seeds, as well as seeds were stored for three different storage periods, viz. 15, 30 and 45 days and thereby conducted germination tests. The results revealed that storage and storage periods considerably influenced the germination percentage (GP) of black gram seed. The highest GP of 87.73% was found in the seeds stored at sealed tin container, while the lowest GP (71.08%) was observed in the seeds stored in gunny bag. Among the three storage containers, the GP reduced rapidly in the seeds stored in gunny bags (6.52%), followed by poly bag (18.98%). The maximum values of GP (85.43%) of black gram seed were recorded when 15 days after storage (DAS), whereas the lowest GP (68.33%) was at 45 DAS, and the GP decreased noticeably with the increase of storage periods from 15 to 30 and to 45 DAS. In combination influence of storage containers and storage periods, the maximum GP (85.90%) was recorded at when seeds kept in sealed tin container with stored for the shortest duration (15 DAS), while the minimum (58.11%) was recorded in the seeds stored in gunny bag for the longest period with 45 DAS. Seeds stored in the sealed tin containers exhibited an excellent performance regarding GP with the shortest storage periods and, thereby, black gram should be kept in sealed tin containers or like this air tight containers for storage, as well as seeds should be sun dried after a short period for maintaining seed quality.
A laboratory experiment was conducted at the Department of Agronomy, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dianjpur-5200, Bangladesh to evaluate the storage containers and duration of seed storage on the germinability and health of wheat seeds. The experiment was carried out in two factors, viz. three storage containers naming i) sealed tin container, ii) plastic container, iii) gunny bag, and four storage periods of i) 15 days, ii) 30 days, iii) 45 days, and iv) 60 days. Completely randomized design (CRD) was used in this experiment with eight replications. The results revealed that the germination percentages (GP) of the seeds stored in the gunny bag decreased quickly from 66.1 to 32.8% due to contained with high moisture content in seed. But, slowly decreasing trends of GP from 80.4% to 69.2% was observed in the sealed tin container seeds with lesser moisture content than that of gunny bag and plastic container. The reduction of GP was so higher of 50.38% in the seeds contained in gunny bag than that of only 13.93% in the seeds contained sealed tin container. Wheat seeds stored in sealed tin container, plastic container and gunny bag significantly increased moisture content in ambient condition for 60 DAS. The moisture content of the seeds stored in gunny bag was found to rise remarkably more than other containers. This escalation of seed moisture content was closely related to the surrounding environmental conditions, like temperature and relative humidity where seeds were stored. The rate seed deterioration in gunny bag and plastic container paralleled the level of invasion by storage insect was found. During storage period, insect infected the seeds, and the insect bitten seeds were also found higher in gunny bag and plastic container, but lower in sealed container. Wheat seeds should be stored in air tight sealed container and drying should be done after some days of storage (45-60 DAS).
Fruits and vegetables are important sources of nutrients for mankind. Among the various fruits available in Bangladesh, mango occupies a vital place in the human nutrition for its delicious taste and higher nutritious value. In this study, five mango varieties, viz. Fazli, Amrupali, Langra, Gopalbogh and Misribogh, were tested to evaluate the quality of these mango varieties available in Northern Bangladesh. Physiochemical characteristics, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total solids, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total sugars and ascorbic acid contents were evaluated. The results showed that there were significant (p< 0.05) differences among mangoes of all varieties for physicochemical parameters. In case of proximate composition, the mango variety Amrupali showed the highest ash content (2.34±0.15) and fat content (1.18±0.13). Protein content (0.94±0.12) and total fiber (2.67%) content was shown to be the highest by Gopalbogh and Misribogh, respectively. The selected mango varieties contained TSS of 12.87~20.55oBrix, pH of 4.45~4.67, titrable acidity of 0.07~0.42%, reducing sugar of 8.40~15.43%, non-reducing sugar of 9.24~10.48%, and total sugarof 18.88~25.12%. The study findings would be helpful for the consumers, dietitian and industry policymakers.
A laboratory experiment regarding germination and seedling growth test was conducted with three black gram genotypes tested under three salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM), for 10 days, in sand culture within small plastic pot, to investigate the germination and seedling growth characteristics. Different germination traits of all black gram genotypes, like germination percentage (GP), germination rate (GR), coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG) greatly reduced, as well as mean germination time (MGT) increased with increasing salt stress. At high salt stress, BARI Mash-3 provided the highest GP reduction (28.58%), while the lowest was recorded (15.79% to control) in BARI Mash-1. Salinity have the negative impact on shoot and root lengths, fresh and dry weights. The highest (50.32% to control) and lowest reduction (36.39%) of shoot length were recorded in BARI Mash-2 and BARI Mash-1, respectively, under 150 mM NaCl saline conditions. There were significant reduction of root lengths, root fresh and dry weight, shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight in all genotypes under saline condition. The genotypes were arranged as BARI Mash-1 > BARI Mash-3 > BARI Mash-2, with respect to salinity tolerance.