In order to evaluate yield and some of physiological indices of potato cultivars in relation to different kinds of manures, strip plot layout within a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Three levels of fertilizer were included manure (t/ha) (20, 40 and 60 t/ha), biologic fertilizer (ml/ha) (0, 100 and 200 ml/ha), and chemical fertilizer (kg/ha) (175, 350, and 525 kg/ha). Cultivars were Marfona, Maradona and Ramus. Marfona had obtained the maximum plant height, total dry matter, LAI, tuber yield, dry matter of tuber, the number of tuber and tuber weight. Application of 60 t/ha manure fertilizer together with Marfona produced the highest yield. In this experiment, fertilizer showed significant effects on potato cultivars yield and physiological indices. Marfona and Ramus had obtained the highest and the lowest total dry matter, respectively. The maximum LAI was related to application of 60 t/ha manure fertilizer, and the minimum one was obtained for application of 40 t/ha manure fertilizer. In cultivar treatments, the highest LAI was obtained for Marfona, followed by Maradona and Ramus. The maximum and the minimum crop growth rate (CGR) was related to chemical and biological fertilizer, respectively. The maximum CGR was related to Marfona, than those of other cultivars. There were not any significant differences among different fertilizers in net assimilation ratio (NAR), fertilizer levels and various cultivars. Thus, it can ve suggested that in order to increasing yield, total dry matter, crop growth rate and other physiological indices should be applied 60 t/ha manure fertilizer with Marfona cultivar in Fereydan region of Esfahan, Iran.
Allelopathy is the detrimental effect of one crop on germination or development of a plant of another species. A factorial layout within completely randomized design with four replications was used to survey the influence of barley extract on corn seeds. Treatments included plant organs extract (leaf, stem, root and total), and different barley extract densities (Nosrat cultivar) includes four levels of 0%, 25%, 50% and 100%. The influence of barley extract was significant on coleoptile weight, radicle weight, radicle length and coleoptile length. Plant organs had meaningful effect on germination rate, germination percentage, coleoptile weight, radicle weight, radicle length and coleoptile length. Among all experimental characteristics, coleoptiles length was influenced by interaction between barley extract and plant organ. Although, the highest germination rate and germination percentage was related to 25% and 100% of barley extract density, the maximum coleoptile weight, radicle weight, radicle length and coleoptiles length was related to control treatment (0%). Leaf extract has obtained the higher values of germination rate, germination percentage, coleoptile weight, radicle weight, radicle length and coleoptile length. Interaction between control treatment (0% plant extract) and stem extract had obtained the highest coleoptiles weight, radicle weight, radicle length and coleoptile length. Hence, from the obtained results, it can be concluded that the extracts of barley may have allelopathic influence on germination and seedling growth of corn.
Corn is one of the most important cereal crop grown in Iran. A complete randomized design with four replications was used to analysis the influence of soil amendment of super absorbent polymer on grain yield and yield components of corn in center of Iran in 2016 and 2017. Treatments with super absorbent polymer were 0 kg/ha (S1), 15 kg/ha (S2), 30 kg/ha (S3), and treatments with fertilizers were 50% (F1), 75% (F2), 100% (F3), which could be combined into nine pots. The influence of super absorbent polymer was significant on spike weight in 2017, above-ground biomass in 2016, one hundred seed weight in 2016, and grain yield in 2017. There was no meaningful influence of super absorbent polymer on spike weight in 2016, above-ground biomass in 2017, 100 seed weight in 2017 and grain yield in 2016. Fertilizer treatments had significant influence on spike weight, above-ground biomass, 100 seed weight, and grain yield in both 2016 and 2017. The interaction between SAP and fertilizers had significant effect on above ground biomass in 2017. In both years, the highest spike weight, above ground biomass, 100 seed weight and grain yield was related to S3 (30 kg/ha), followed by S2 (15 kg/ha) and S1 (0 kg/ha), respectively. 100% application of fertilizer (F3) had obtained the maximum spike weight, above ground biomass, 100 seed weight and grain in both 2016 and 2017. Our data have shown that the applied SAP had a remarkable effect on corn growth and yield under different fertilization treatments, and its application of 30 kg/ha gave the best corn production index.
To evaluate soil water consumption, changes in quantity and quality of winter wheat seed and forage under different irrigation treatments, an experiment was conducted in Beijing, China, in the 2012-2013. Irrigation treatments were (I1): irrigation before sowing, (I2): irrigation before sowing + before freezing; (I3): irrigation before sowing + before freezing + irrigation in the beginning of erecting stage + irrigation at flowering stage; (I4): irrigation before sowing + irrigation before freezing + irrigation at the booting stage + irrigation at flowering stage. The laid out of experiment was randomized complete block design, repeated six times. The effect of irrigation on total biological yield, grain yield and harvest index is significant. The highest mean soil water consumption in Oct., Nov., Dec., Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr. and May was obtained for lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 6 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 11 (I3), and lysimeter 10 (I2), respectively. The results from the study indicate that irrigation winter wheat throughout the booting stage and flowering stage increased grain yield, harvest index, potassium percentage, ash percentage of forage wheat at flowering stage, seed and forage protein percentage. Evapotranspiration trends increased steadily, especially in last three months, in which the lysimeter fields were covered by winter wheat completely.
In order to estimate the water requirement of barley and wheat by using of ET-HS model, a research was conducted at Research Farm of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Iran. ET-HS model is used to determine irrigation water quantity and irrigation schedule for different crop. The study was based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and six treatments. The irrigation treatments included irrigation to supply 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model during growing season and control treatment (conventional irrigation), which was irrigation on the basis of 70 mm evaporation from Class A evaporation pan during growing season. In barley experiment, the highest values for number of fertile tiller, maximum LAI, total dry matter in maximum LAI stage, number of grain per spike, a thousand seed weight (35.56 g), grain yield (7877.9 kg/ha), biological yield (17689.7 kg/ha) and harvest index (44.45%) was obtained for irrigation according to 100% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model. In wheat experiment, the highest number of fertile spike, number of grain per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield was obtained for irrigation treatment on the basis of 100% ET-HS model; moreover, the maximum harvest index was related to control treatment, followed by irrigation on the basis of 100% of ET-HS model. Conclusively, the appropriate irrigation treatment was 100% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model during the growth season for both crops.
A study was conducted to assess the effects of a bio-fertilizer and an inorganic fertilizer on growth, yield of spinach vegetable, on four cultivated soils, representing different agro-ecological zones of Chengdu, Hunan, Xiaotangshan and Shaanxi. Three replicates soil samples mixed with bio-fertilizer 100 g per pot and nutrient solution (MgSO4, Ca(NO)2, KNO3) 633 ml based on container volume. Spinach seeded directly ten per pot, thinned to five watered to plant water requirement until maturity. RCBD of three replication used, data for growth, yield and other agronomic characters and soil physicochemical properties evaluated. Soil results showed substantial differences in physicochemical properties from the four agro-ecological zones (Ferrod Arenosol, Entisol, Aridisol and Vertisol). Plant emergence percent were Xiaotangshan (74.8%), Chengdu (74.5%), Hunan (72.4%) and Shaanxi (70.7%), plant height at six week, Xiaotangshan (17.8 cm), Hunan (17.1 cm), Shaanxi (16.8 cm) and Chengdu (16.1 cm) the least, number of leaves at six weeks were Xiaotangshan (21), Hunan (19) and (16) Shaanxi, leaf area Hunan (89.5 cm2), Shaanxi (83.7 cm2), Chengdu (79.4 cm2) and Xiaotangshan (78.1 cm2), dry biomass of 4.88, 4.35, 3.83 and 3.03 g obtained for Hunan, Chengdu, Shaanxi and Xiaotangshan, respectively. Percentage plant emergence based on soil layers were 0-25 cm (75.8%), 25-50 cm (75.3%), 50-75 cm (71.6%) and 75-100 cm (69.6%), respectively; highest plant emergence percentage were obtained from top soil layer of Hunan, treated with biofertilizer. Substantial differences were observed for plant height, biomass and other agronomic characters in all the soils. The results show that Hunan soil is the most suitable for cultivation of spinach under biofertilizer treatment, compared to other types. The study underpins the importance soil types and fertilizer evaluation for a sustainable vegetable production in China.
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is one the most appropriate choice for investing in dry and semi dry areas. In order to analyse influence of drought stress on germination and seedling growth of two masses of cumin, an experiment was conducted in seed technology laboratory of Faculty of Agriculture of Islamic Azad University of Isfahan, in 2016. In this experiment, polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) at six levels (0, -0.144, -0.18, -0.216 and -0.288 MP) and NaCl at six levels (0, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 ds/m) and distilled water as control were applied to investigate the influence of dryness and salinity stresses on seed germination and seedling growth of two cultivars of cumin plant masses gathered from Mashhad-e-Ardahal and Kerman, then fulfilled in two separate factorial trials, on the basis of randomized design with four replications. Cultivar had significant influence on germination percentage, germination uniformity, radicle length, plumule length, fresh radicle weight, dry radicle weight, fresh and dry plumule weight. Drought stress impact on all treatments, except germination uniformity, fresh radicle weight and dry radicle weight was meaningful, but, just radicle length, plumule length, fresh plumule weight and dry plumule weight significantly affected by interaction between cultivar and drought stress. The rate of germination, germination percentage, as well as seedling growth and establishment were considerably lowered with the rise of stress levels using PEG. Control treatment had obtained the highest germination percentage, mean time of germination, radicle and plumule length, fresh plumule weight and seed stamina index. Taking all traits into account, this experiment found that Mashhad-e-Ardahal was most tolerant hybrid to water stress conditions.
Intercropping is one of the most important and sustaibale cropping practice in agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted under field conditions in the arid Horqine sandy land in Baicheng District, Jilin Province, Northern China in 2011. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Treatments comprised different mono cropping and intercropping patterns, TO: sole cropping of oat, TOS-O: oat in the intercropping of oat and soybean, TOG-O: oat in the intercropping of oat and groundnut, TS: sole cropping of soybean, TOS-S: soybean in intercropping of oat and soybean, TG: sole cropping of groundnut, TOG-G: groundnut in the intercropping of oat and groundnut. In intercropping patterns, oat in oat-groundnut had obtained the highest dry matter in all stages. The highest value of protein percentage and organic matter in heading stage, grain filling stage, and grain dough stage was achieved in groundnut in oatgroundnut intercropping. The maximum value of protein percentage and organic matter in booting stage and ripening stage was related to soybean in oat-soybean intercropping. The results of this study clearly indicate that intercropping oat and groundnut affects the growth rate of the individual species in mixtures as well as the dry matter yield and nitrogen accumulation. The highest seed yield was obtained for mono-cropping of soybean, followed by mono-cropping of groundnut and oat. Oat seed yield intercropping of oat and groundnut, and intercropping of oat and soybean were 1208.00 kg/ha, and 832.3 kg/ha, respectively. The highest grain yield was obtained when soybean was grown together with oat, where the higher yield of intercrop is due to the better usage of nutrient, water and light. LER in all intercropping patterns were higher than 1. LER in intercropping of soybean and oat, and intercropping of groundnut and oat were 1.41, and 1.30, respectively. With these LER values, 29.07% and 23.07% of land were, respectively, saved in intercropping of soybean and oat, and intercropping of groundnut and oat, respectively, which could be used for other agricultural purposes. In both intercropping of soybean and oat, and intercropping of groundnut and oat, CI were less than 1, which means that both these two intercropping patterns have positive effects.
Oat seed with dormancy characteristics, which can germinate after one season or one year, are used to build and maintain vegetation to protect soils from been damaged by desertification in Northern China. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of endogenous and exogenous GA3 and ABA on oat seed (var. Baiyan 7) germination. The results showed that seeds without peel hull had lower endogenous ABA content and the ratio of ABA/GA3 than seeds with peel hull. The best GA3 treatment duration for milky ripe, wax ripe, full ripe seeds were 60 min or 120 min, 60 min and 30 min, respectively. Seed germination rate, germination potential and germination index increased before they declined with the increasing of GA3 concentrations. The best GA3 concentration treatment was 100 mg/l, while the turning point was 200 mg/l. The dormancy rate of low temperature storage seeds were higher than those of room temperature storage seeds at each storage time, and both decreased with the increase of the storage time. For the seeds which were new or stored for 1-2 months, the germination rates were enhanced significantly by exogenous GA3. For the seeds that had been stored for over three months, GA3 treatment had no effect on germination rate. Germination rate decreased with the increase of ABA concentrations. The most inhibitive effect, which leaded to a seed germination reduction by 37.7% and 4.0%, appeared, when the concentration of ABA was 500 mg/L and 1000 mg/l, respectively. GA3 could abate the effect which ABA inhibited seed germination.