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  • Author: M.C. Patel x
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Temperature-dependent in Situ Gel of Clotrimazole: an Experimental Study


Background: The in-situ gel-forming polymeric formulations offer sustained and prolonged action in comparison to conventional drug delivery systems.

Aim: To formulate and evaluate in situ vaginal gel of clotrimazole.

Materials and methods: Poloxamer 407 (20%) was slowly added to freezing water (5°C) with constant stirring. The prepared dispersion was refrigerated for 5 h, the different concentrations of polymers were added for preliminary batches. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed for clotrimazole-excipients compatibility study. The final batch was prepared and evaluated for physicochemical parameters, in vitro clotrimazole release, in vitro antifungal activity, and in vivo vaginal tissue irritation test.

Results: The compatibility study showed no chemical interaction between clotrimazole and excipients used. The evaluation parameters showed that clotrimazole release was in the range of 8 to 10 h, gelling temperature was in the range of 27–35°C, gelling time was in the range of 28–34 sec, pH was in the range of 4.4–4.8, and viscosities were in the range of 16.4–182.6 cP (solution form) and 10,500–20,756 cP (gel form). The zone of inhibitions for clotrimazole pure drug, the marketed vaginal gel of clotrimazole, and optimized gel formulation was 9.15±0.75 mm, 14.35±1.12 mm, and 18.85±1.56 mm, respectively (p < 0.0001, q = 5.98). An optimized gel formulation was not irritant to vaginal tissue.

Conclusion: It was possible to formulate effective in situ vaginal gel for control release action of clotrimazole.

Level of Evidence: IIC.

Open access
Alternaria and Cercospora Leaf Spot Diseases of Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) – A Traditional Tribal Crop of South Gujarat, India, with Cost Benefit Ratio in Relation to Different Fungicides


Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) is an important minor oil seed crop grown in dry areas grown mostly by tribal and interior places as life line of tribal segment. Tribal people mainly use its oil for cooking purpose, above than that there were also other uses. Hence, the niger crop should be protected from the infection. The crop is affected by number of fungal diseases. Therefore, a field experiment was formulated for three years with the four replications at the Niger Research Station (NRS) at Navsari Agricultural University (NAU), Vanarasi, Navsari (Gujarat) on the foliar diseases of GN-1 variety of niger crop. In this experiment, six different fungicides along with one control have been evaluated to control the Alternaria and Cercospora leaf spot diseases, out of which all the fungicidal treatments were significantly superior over the control. Here, foliar spray on the incidence of diseases was compared with the control (without any treatment). All the fungicidal treatments were significantly superior over the control to reduce Alternaria and Cercospora leaf spot diseases of Niger crop. Treatment of Carbendazim + Mancozeb (0.2 %) with two sprays first from the initiation of the disease and second after the interval of 15 days recorded the lowest incidence of Alternaria (14.56) and Cercospora (14.94) leaf spot diseases of niger and recorded the highest seed yield 337 seed yield kg/ha along with the net return with cost benefit ratio graph.

Open access
Seed Yield Increase in Niger Crop in to Relation to Honeybee and Other Pollinators


Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass) is an important minor oilseed crop of hilly and tribal regions and it is used for oil as well as for various other purposes only by the tribal people. Therefore, a systematic study was arranged to document about the increase in the seed yield of niger crop in relation to honeybees (Aphis mellifera), as a pollinator in niger crop with paired plot technique at the Niger Research Station (NRS) at Navsari Agricultural University (NAU) and at farmer’s field, Vanarasi, Navsari, Gujarat (India) and also studied its relation in terms of cost benefit ratio (CB). The trial was conducted at Niger Research Station (NRS), Vanarasi for 3 years (2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16) and also at farmer's field to ascertain the role and involvement of honey bees (Aphis mellifera) in swelling the seed yield of niger crop (due to pollination) and its effect on income due to increase in the niger seed yield. Significant differences were observed for number of capitula/plant, number of seeds/capitula, 1000 seed weight and seed yield in both the location for the consecutive 3 years. However, the seed yield and gross returns were considerably higher in first location of T1 Natural plot/open pollinated with beehive (Aphis mellifera) in all the 3 years data with the maximum seed yield with the gross return was obtained in this treatment.

Open access