Zahoor Ahmad, M.A. Choudhary, M.A. Mirza and J.A. Mirza
Ag nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated by polycarbazole (PCz) have been synthesized using ion adsorption method. The PCz synthesis around Ag NPs has been performed by adsorbing Ag+1 and Fe+3 oxidants onto Ag NPs, which initiated surface polymerization and thus, Ag NPs@PCz nanocomposite has been synthesized. The morphology of pure NPs and composite NPs was characterized by TEM which also elucidated the effect of oxidant on the core NPs, beside their morphologies and phase contrasts of metal NPs and polymer. The polymer around the surface of core NPs was characterized by FT-IR which proved that PCz was the organic phase of the composite NPs. UV-Vis spectroscopy has been employed to study surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of pure NPs and composite of NP which demonstrated that SPR of core NPs remained preserved after coating with the polymer. Furthermore, Zeta Sizer Nano series has been applied to analyze the dispersion behavior of pure NPs and composite NPs which displayed the greatly improved dispersion behavior of the composite NPs as compared to pure Ag NPs. Therefore, our study proved helpful to analyze the suitability of metal oxidants for PCz based nanocomposite synthesis and determination of their optical and dispersion behavior.
N. A. Khan, A. Shaikh, M. A. Zahoor Raja and S. Khan
In this article, Legendre simulated annealing, neural network (LSANN) is designed for fuzzy fractional order differential equations, which is employed on fractional fuzzy initial value problem (FFIVP) with triangular condition. Here, Legendre polynomials are used to modify the structure of neural networks with a Taylor series approximation of the tangent hyperbolic as activation function while the network adaptive coefficients are trained in the procedure of simulated annealing to optimize the residual error. The computational results are depicted in terms of numerical values to compare them with previous results.
T. Shah, A.Z. Khan, M. Numan, W. Ahmad, M. Zahoor, M. Ullah and A. Jalal
Water stress experienced by a wheat crop during growth is recognized to have accumulative effect stated as a decline in total biomass over well water potential. The yield and nutrient uptake performance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Pirsabak-2013 and Atta Habib) to foliar feeding of 2% potassium (K) at three various growth phases (Zadoks GS-22, Zadoks GS-60 and Zadoks GS-73) was explored under water restricted environment in a wire house trial at the Agriculture Research Station, Harichand, Charsadda. The target was to find out the preeminent K application stage for enhancement in the drought tolerance potential. Drought stress was generated by suppression of irrigation at the three growth phases and then K was sprayed with the carboxymethyl cellulose as a sticking agent, however Tween-20 was used as a surfactant for foliar spray. Data about several agronomic characters (plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield per plant) of crop were documented via standard techniques. Moreover, at maturity, aboveground nitrogen, phosphorus, K, sodium and calcium uptakes by the crop were determined. The results point out that drought stress at all three acute growth phases unfavorably affected plant height, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and nutrient uptake of the wheat plant. The exogenous K application under drought stress at all three acute growth phases boosted tolerance of wheat by decreasing noxious nutrient’s uptake and augmenting the yield and yield characters. In this concerns, both varieties exposed undeviating behavior. Extreme enhancement in all the documented yield parameters and nutrients uptake was attained when K was practiced at grain filling stage of both varieties.
F. Zahoor, M.A. Malik, R. Anser, M. Shehzad, A. Saleem, M. Anser, M.H. Siddiqui, K. Mubeen and S.H. Raza
Rainfed wheat is generally grown in rotation with summer fallow in medium to high rainfall zone of Pothwar plateau of Pakistan. The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the impact of shallow and deep tillage practices, with and without herbicide (glyphosate) application, on moisture conservation and subsequent wheat yields. The study also aimed to examine the feasibility of substituting intensive shallow tillage with single application of glyphosate. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates and net plot size of 14 m x 10 m, during 2007 and 2008 at two locations i.e high and medium rainfall. Wheat cultivar “GA-2002” was planted as a test crop. The data showed the superiority of conservation tillage in terms of conservation of moisture and increasing grain yields. Results also elaborated that tillage cannot be completely eliminated for profitable fallow management. However, deep ploughing with moldboard followed by single application of glyphosate proved potential option for substituting shallow tillage carried out during summer (kharif). The additional benefits under this tillage system included saving in fuel, labour and lower depreciation and maintenance costs for tillage machinery in addition to unquantifiable environmental benefits.
N. Sarwar, A. Wasaya, S. Saliq, A. Reham, O. Farooq, K. Mubeen, M. Shehzad, M. Usman Zahoor and A. Ghani
Complex nature of nitrogen fertilizer in soil and poor management practices are major causes of low fertilizer use efficiency in Pakistan. These factors further increases nitrogen losses in form of nitrate leaching and volatilization of ammonium, as well as nitric oxide which are burning economic and environmental threats. Keeping in view the demand of urea application in Pakistan and its low efficiency, we hypothized that appropriate urea management with neem formulations or biofertilizers can enhance the nitrogen use efficiency. We designed experiment with treatments: T0 (N0 application), T1 (recommended nitrogen), T2 (recommended nitrogen + biofertilizer), T3 (recommended nitrogen + neem seed extract), T4 (75% recommended nitrogen + biofertilizer), T5 (75% recommended nitrogen + neem seed extract), T6 (recommended nitrogen + biofertilizer + neem seed extract), T7 (75% recommended nitrogen + biofertilizer + neem seed extract) in wheat crop. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangements. Different approaches for stabilized nitrogen fertilizer responded significantly for the wheat plant height, tillers per plant, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain yield, grain yield and harvest index. Result exhibited that wheat crop enhanced yield attributes and finally the yield under treatment T6 and T7 for both wheat cultivars. Treatments comparison with recommended nitrogen (T1) revealed that all treatments with biofertilizer, as well as with neem seed, enhanced crop performance along with nitrogen use efficiency. It can be concluded that nitrogen fertilizer can be stabilized in the soil with the use of different natural products for sustainable crop production.
Maria Arshad, Abbas Khan, Zahoor H. Farooqi, Muhammad Usman, M. Abdul Waseem, Sayyar Ali Shah and Momin Khan
Due to their potential application in various fields of science and technology, the eco-friendly bio-synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) is a growing area for researchers. In this study, we report the green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and their characterization by using various techniques. For the preparation of Ag particles, aqueous plant extract of ailanthus altissima was used as a reducing medium for Ag+ ions of silver nitrate to Ag0. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to trace the formation of Ag particles by noting their surface plasmon resonance peaks (400 nm to 440 nm). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was employed to reveal the chemical composition of Ag nanoparticles which were capped by plant extract. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to get the lattice image, morphology and average size of Ag particles. The average size distribution of Ag NPs dispersed in aqueous media was also measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS). It was found that DLS results are in good agreement with those obtained from SEM. The synthesized particles were then subjected to the antibacterial and antifungal activities by studying them against various species, such as bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and A. parasiticus, A. niger and A. flavus fungi. It was noted from the growth curves of both bacteria and fungi that in the presence of silver nanoparticles they show more in-zone growth as compared to the plant extract.