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M. Wędrychowicz, A. W. Bydałek and W. Wołczyński


This paper presents the idea of increasing the effectiveness of slag decopperisation in an electric furnace in the "Głogów II" Copper Smelter by replacing the currently added CaCO3 with a less energy-intensive technological additive. As a result of this conversion, one may expect improved parameters of the process, including process time or power consumption per cycle. The incentives to optimize the process are the benefits of increasing copper production in the company and the growing global demand for this metal. The paper also describes other factors that may have a significant impact on the optimization of the copper production process. Based on the literature analysis, a solution has been developed that improves the copper production process. The benefits of using a new technology additive primarily include increased share of copper in the alloy, reduced production costs, reduced amount of power consumed per cycle and reduced time it takes to melt. At the conclusion of the paper, the issues raised are highlighted, stressing that mastering the slag slurry process in electric furnaces requires continuous improvement.

Open access

M. Kucharski, P. Madej, M. Wedrychowicz, T. Sak and W. Mróz


This study is devoted to tellurium recovery from sodium carbonate slag, formed in the fire refining process of crude silver. The slag was modified by silica additions and then reduced by carbon oxide. The degree of the slag modification was defined by the parameter kw:

where:ni- the mole numbers of silica, sodium carbonate and sodium oxide. The compositions of the investigated slag determined by the parameter kw and the mole fraction of the tellurium oxide (xTeO2 ) are given in the following Table.

The reduction of tellurium was very fast for all the investigated slags, which was manifested by an almost complete conversion of CO into CO2. Unfortunately, at the same time, a side reaction took place, and as a results sodium telluride was formed, which reported to the slag:

(Na2O)slag + Te(g) + CO = (Na2Te)slag + CO2

The tellurium content in the reduced slag decreases as the parameter kw increases, and only the slag with the kw equal unity was suitable for the tellurium recovery in form of dusts, containing more than 76 wt-% tellurium.