M. Hakeem, M. Waseem, D.M. Baloch, M.A. Khan and Q. Ali
The experiment was conducted to study the impact of sowing interval on the yield and yield contributing traits of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), under the tropical circumstance, during 2016, at the research area present near Faculty of Agriculture, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Science, Uthal, Balochistan. Experimental treatments were comprising three varieties of sesame, SV1 (TS-5), SV2 (TH-6) and SV3 (4002), and cultivated under different three sowing dates, at 15 days interval: S1 = 1st sowing (15 March 2016), S2 = 2nd sowing (1st April 2016) and S3 =3rd sowing (15 April 2016). The results of various observations, i.e. plant height at maturity (cm), 1000-seed weight (g), seed mass (t ha−1), yield index (%) rooting depth (cm) and root weight per plant was found to be significant both for the all the sowing dates and sesame genotypes. Non significant finding was observed in traits of biological yield per plant (g) and root-shoot ratio. Whereas interaction among all the treatment factors was non-significant. Maximum yield and yields contributing parameters was observed in S3 = 3rd sowing (15 April 2016) and sesame genotype SV1 (TS-5), followed by SV2 (TH-6), while minimum yield was noted in S3 = 3rd sowing (15 April 2016) and SV3 (4002) sesame genotypes. On the basis of the coastal agroclimatic condition of district Lasbela, it was concluded that maximum yield production was achieved from the sesame variety (TS-5), as compared to other two sesame (TH-6 and 4002) varieties. Sowing date of sesame at 15th April 2016 was more productive, as compared to the other sowing interval. Coastal climatic condition is feasible for sesame cultivation, especially for the sesame variety (TS-5).
Soil productivity one of the essential factors which enhanced either through adding the chemical fertilizer or by incorporation of organic sources of nutrients to the soil. Regardless by the used of imbalanced fertilizer without the application of organic manure and without seeking knowledge of crops and fertility classification of soil causes to much hazards such as deterioration of soil structure, soil and water pollution etc. Two years field experiment was carried out to check the impact of transitory nitrogen sources on the nutrient concentration, uptake and production of hybrid maize at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan, during the year 2008-2009. Treatments included two hybrids: H1 (Pioneer-30Y87) and H2 (Pioneer-31R88) with six nitrogen sources each, which included at the rate of S0: control (0) kg N ha-1, S1: chemical source (urea) 250 kg N ha-1, S2: poultry manure (PM) 9.6 t ha-1, S3: farm yard manure (FYM) 17.8 t ha-1, S4: pressmud of sugarcane (PMS) 8.5 t ha-1 and S5: compost (C) 10.0 t ha-1. Finding concluded that changing effect of nitrogen sources on both maize hybrid was found to be non significant during 2008-2009 while grain yield was significant during both years. Maximum nutrient concentration, uptake and yield were observed with nitrogen source S1: chemical source (urea) 250 kg N ha-1 during 2008-2009 as compared to other nitrogen sources and minimum was found in control (0) kg N ha-1, respectively. Interaction among hybrid and nitrogen sources was found to be non significant.
Maria Arshad, Abbas Khan, Zahoor H. Farooqi, Muhammad Usman, M. Abdul Waseem, Sayyar Ali Shah and Momin Khan
Due to their potential application in various fields of science and technology, the eco-friendly bio-synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) is a growing area for researchers. In this study, we report the green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and their characterization by using various techniques. For the preparation of Ag particles, aqueous plant extract of ailanthus altissima was used as a reducing medium for Ag+ ions of silver nitrate to Ag0. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to trace the formation of Ag particles by noting their surface plasmon resonance peaks (400 nm to 440 nm). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was employed to reveal the chemical composition of Ag nanoparticles which were capped by plant extract. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to get the lattice image, morphology and average size of Ag particles. The average size distribution of Ag NPs dispersed in aqueous media was also measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS). It was found that DLS results are in good agreement with those obtained from SEM. The synthesized particles were then subjected to the antibacterial and antifungal activities by studying them against various species, such as bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and A. parasiticus, A. niger and A. flavus fungi. It was noted from the growth curves of both bacteria and fungi that in the presence of silver nanoparticles they show more in-zone growth as compared to the plant extract.