The article presents the most complete data on the distribution of ectoparasites in the boreal Palaearctics (gamasid mites of the genera Spinturnix, Macronyssus, and Steatonyssus, bat flies of the family Nycteribiidae, fleas of the family Ischnopsyllidae) and its preferences for the hosts. On the basis of these data as well as the data for the resettlement of bats in Eurasia 30 species of boreal bat ectoparasites combined into three faunal complexes (Transpalaearctic, European-Ural and Siberian-Far East) and two groups (European-Ural species, penetrating to the east and Siberian-Far East, penetrating to the west). The boundary between the European-Ural and Siberian-Far East faunal complexes is situated presumably along the Irtysh River. The resulting zoning provides a new look at the parasitocenosis of ectoparasites in the taiga zone of the Palaearctics.
We investigated density dynamics of three bat flies species (Diptera, Nycteribiidae): Penicillidia monoceros Speiser, 1900, Nycteribia quasiocellata (Theodor, 1966), Basilia rybini (Hurka, 1969) parasitized on two host species: pond bat, Myotis dasycneme (Boie, 1825), and eastern water bat, Myotis petax Hollister, 1912. Females of M. dasycneme have 3.4 (95 % CI 1.4–8.3) times higher odds of being infested, and in 2.4 (1.5–3.7) times higher average number of P. monoceros than males. Similarly, females of M. petax have 1.7 (1.2–2.4) times higher density of N. quasiocellata and/or B. rybini. We hypothesized an existence of host-sex-recognition mechanism in bat flies, providing it fine “ecological profit” due to sex-biased dispersal among adult host during wintering and the chance to infested a host offspring later (in summer). The decrease (due to mortality or emigration) in density of bat flies can be described as simple harmonic or S-shaped curve, and its “step” apparently corresponds to time of host pairing.
Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormal growth and accumulation of mast cells (MCs) in the skin and/or other organ systems. Mastocytosis is a rare disease. The annual incidence is 5–10 cases per 1 million people. However, the majority of cases stay undiagnosed due to the lack of specific tests and a wide variety of clinical features of the disease. In mastocytosis, somatic mutations of KIT gene lead to autocrine dysregulation and constitutive c-KIT activation in the absence of its ligand SCF. Clinical symptoms of the disease are determined by MC mediator release and/or infiltration of tissues by MCs. According to the World Health Organisation classification updated in 2016 mastocytosis is divided to cutaneous mastocytosis (CM), indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM), smoldering systemic mastocytosis (SSM), SM with an associated hematologic (non-MC-lineage) neoplasm (SMAHN), aggressive SM (ASM), MC leukemia (MCL) and MC sarcoma (MCS). The CM and ISM prognosis is excellent with (almost) normal life expectancy, unlike aggressive forms (ASM and MCL) with poor prognosis. In this paper the key aspects of clinical features and diagnostic criteria of mastocytosis are discussed. We present a case report of a patient with mastocytosis in the skin following psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy with good response.