Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for

  • Author: M. Sułowski x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

M. Sulowski

Abstract

The effects of processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-Mn-Cr- Mo-C PM steels are described. Pre-alloyed Astaloy CrM and Astaloy CrL, low-carbon ferromanganese and graphite powders were used as the starting materials. After pressing in rigid die, the compacts were conventionally and high temperature sintered at 1120 and 1250°C, respectively. Sintering was carried out for 60 minutes in atmospheres with different H2/N2 ratios. Cooling rate from sintering temperature was 65°C min-1 (convective cooling). The specimens were subsequently tempered at 200°C for 60 minutes in air. All specimens were tested for tensile strength (UTS), elongation (A), offset yield strength (R0:2), transverse rupture strength (TRS), impact toughness and apparent surface hardness (HV 30). After mechanical tests the microstructure of Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-C PM steels was studied by optical microscopy. These investigations have shown that, by sintering in inexpensive and safe nitrogen-rich atmospheres, it is possible to achieve mechanical properties similar to those of specimens sintered in pure hydrogen and hydrogen-rich atmospheres.

Open access

M. Sułowski and A. Ciaś

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cr-Mn Structural PM Steels

The effects of chemical composition, sintering atmosphere and cooling rate on density, microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-3%Mn-(Cr)-(Mo)-0.3%C PM steels are described. Pre-alloyed Astaloy CrM and Astaloy CrL, ferromanganese and graphite powders were used as the starting materials. After pressing in rigid dies the compacts were sintered at 1120 and 1250°C for 60 minutes atmospheres with different H2/N2 ratios and cooled either at 1.4°Cmin-1 (with the furnace) or 65°Cmin-1 (convective cooling). The convective cooled specimens were subsequently tempered at 200°C for 60 and 240 minutes. All specimens were tested for tensile strength (UTS), elongation (A), offset yield strength (R0.2), TRS, impact toughness and apparent surface hardness (HV 30). After mechanical tests the microstructure of the Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-C PM steels was studied by optical microscopy. It has been found that by sintering in inexpensive and safe nitrogen-rich atmospheres it is possible to achieve properties similar to those shown by specimens sintered in a hydrogen-rich atmosphere.

Open access

M. Sułowski, A. Ciaś and T. Pieczonka

Abstract

The paper presents the effect of sintering conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low-carbon Mn-Cr-Mo PM steels. It was proved there is no effect of tempering temperature on the properties of Astaloy CrL-base steels, sintered at 1250°C in 5%H2-95%N2 mixture as compared with the properties of those sintered at 1120°C. The properties of Astaloy CrM-based steels, sintered at 1250°C in air were comparable or higher to Astaloy CrL-based steels. The addition of lump of ferromanganese was not sufficient for metal oxides reduction. The structure investigation confirmed the earlier observations that Mn-Cr-Mo PM steels have predominantly martensitic or martensitic/bainitic microstructure.

Open access

M. Sułowski, P. Kulecki and A. Radziszewska

Abstract

The object of the study was the evaluation of the effect of production parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr and Cr-Mo PM steels. The steels were processed from commercial Höganäs pre-alloyed powders: Astaloy CrA, Astaloy CrL and Astaloy CrM with carbon, added in the form of grade C-UF graphite powder in amounts of 0.4 and 0.8 wt. %. Following Turbula mixing for 30 minutes, green compacts were single pressed at 660 MPa according to PN-EN ISO 2740 standard. Sintering was carried out in a laboratory horizontal furnace at 1120°C and 1250°C for 60 minutes in a 5%-95% hydrogen-nitrogen atmosphere. After sintering, the samples were tempered at 200°C for 60 minutes in air. Mechanical tests indicate that the steel based on Astaloy CrA pre-alloyed powder could be an alternative material to steels based on Astaloy CrM. Steels sintered at the higher temperature revealed better mechanical properties.

Open access

T. Pieczonka, M. Sułowski and A. Ciaś

Dilatometric data for Astaloy CrM (3% Cr-0.5% Mo) and Astaloy CrL (1.5% Cr-0.2% Mo) powders with additions of 0.3% carbon and 3.0% manganese during sintering cycles up to 1120 and 1250°C in different atmospheres are reported. For comparison, also Astaloy CrM and Astaloy CrL powders were investigated. Starting with green densities of approx. 6.8 g/cm3, the final density of sintered compacts was influenced mainly by the sintering temperature, while the results showed the only minor effect of the sintering atmosphere on the final dimensional changes. However, the sintering atmosphere influences the sintering behaviour, microstructure and the final chemical composition of sintered compacts. In sintered and in the dilatometer cooled Mn-Cr-Mo-C steels predominantly bainitic structures were obtained.

Open access

M. Tenerowicz and M. Sułowski

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine how a reduction of Mn content in PM steels will affect their plastic and strength properties. The results of mechanical, metallographic and fractography tests of sintered (PM) steels containing 1% and 2% Mn are reported and compared with those for 3% Mn PM steel. Höganäs iron powder grade NC 100.24, low-carbon ferromanganese Elkem and graphite powder grade C-UF were used as the starting powders. Powder mixes Fe-(1-2)%Mn-0.8%C were prepared in a Turbula mixer for 30 minutes. Following mixing, “dog bone” compacts were single pressed at 660 MPa, according to PN-EN ISO 2740 standard. Sintering of compacts was carried out in a laboratory tube furnace at 1120°C and 1250°C for 60 minutes in a mixture of 95%N2 – 5%H2 in a semi-closed container. Three types of heat treatment were then used: sinterhardening (cooling rate – 66°C/min), slow furnace cooling (cooling rate 3.5°C/min) and tempering at 200°C. The studies have shown a beneficial effect of the reduction of manganese on plastic properties (up to 7.96%), while maintaining fracture strengths (UTSs) comparable to those of steel with higher contents of manganese. Currently detailed studies of steel containing 1%Mn are conducted.

Open access

M. Tenerowicz and M. Sułowski

Abstract

Sintered steels with the addition of manganese are widely used in industry because of their attractive mechanical properties. The main problem of using manganese in powder metallurgy steel production is its high affinity for oxygen. The choice of proper sintering parameters can significantly improve the properties of the final product.

For the present investigations Höganäs iron powder grade NC 100.24, low-carbon (1.3%C) ferromanganese Elkem (Eramet Norway Sauda – formerly Elkem Manganese Sauda) and graphite powder grade C-UF were used as the starting powders. Mixture of powders, containing 3% Mn and 0.8% C, was prepared in Turbula mixer for 30 minutes. Following mixing, “dog bone” compacts were pressed at 660 MPa according to PN-EN ISO 2740 standard. Sintering of compacts was carried out in the laboratory tube furnace at 1120 and 1250°C for 60 minutes in air or pure nitrogen (99.999%N2). The present investigation deals with the comparison of two heat treatment routes: sinterhardening (SH) and sinteraustempering (SAT), carried out both in air and pure nitrogen. Mechanically tested steels were investigated using JEOL JSM 700F completed with EDS. Metallography tests were carried out on 3% Nital etched samples.

In this paper the results of mechanical tests and metallography and fractography investigations are shown. According to the results obtained, it can be assumed that for sinteraustempering higher temperature does not influence mechanical properties of sintered steels. For both methods using pure nitrogen as sintering atmosphere gave better results.

Open access

P. Kulecki, E. Lichańska and M. Sułowski

The object of the study was to evaluate the effect of production parameters on the structure and mechanical properties of Cr and Cr-Mo PM steels. The measurements were performed on sintered steels made from commercial Höganäs pre-alloyed powders: Astaloy CrA, Astaloy CrL and Astaloy CrM mixed with carbon, added in the form of graphite powder grade C-UF.

Following mixing in a Turbula mixer for 30 minutes, green compacts were single pressed at 660 MPa according to PNEN ISO 2740 standard. Sintering was carried out in a laboratory horizontal furnace at 1120°C and 1250°C for 60 minutes, in 5%H2-95%N2 atmosphere. After sintering, the samples were tempered at 200°C for 60 minutes in air. The steels are characterized by ferritic - pearlitic, bainitic - ferritic and bainitic structures.

Following mechanical testing, it can be assumed that steel based on Astaloy CrA pre-alloyed powder could be an alternative material for steels based on Astaloy CrL powder. These steels sintered at 1250°C with 0.6% C had tensile strengths about 650 MPa, offset yield strengths about 300 MPa, elongations about 8.50 %, TRSs about 1100 MPa, hardnesses 220 HV.

Open access

E. Lichańska, M. Sułowski and A. Ciaś

The effect of chemical composition of the sintering atmosphere on the microstructure and mechanical properties of PM structural low-carbon steels is presented. The base powders were Astaloy CrL, Astaloy CrM, low carbon ferromanganese and graphite C-UF. From the base powders two mixtures with compositions of Fe-3%Mn-(1.5/3%)Cr-(0.2/0.5)%Mo-0.2%C were prepared. Following pressing in a steel rigid die, compacts were sintered at 1250°C for 60 min in a semi-closed container. 5%H2-95%N2 mixture and air were the sintering atmospheres. For sintering in air, lumps of ferromanganese were placed with the compacts in the container. After sintering, half of the samples were tempered at 200°C for 60 minutes in air. Mechanical tests (tensile, bend, toughness, hardness) and microstructural investigations were performed.

The microstructures of the steels were inhomogeneous, mainly ferritic-bainic. Tempering of steel based on Astaloy CrM sintered in an atmosphere of 5% H2-95% N2 slightly reduced tensile strength and toughness: from 748 to 734 MPa and from 7.15 to 6.83 J/cm2, respectively. Chemical composition had a greater effect; steels based on Astaloy CrL and Astaloy CrM had tensile strengths 526-665 and 672-748 MPa, hardness 280-325 and 388-421 HV, respectively. The best properties were obtained after sintering in air of Fe-3%Mn-3%Cr-0.5%Mo-0.2%C without heat treatment: tensile strength 672 MPa, toughness 6.93 J/cm2, hardness 421.1 HV, 0.2 % offset yield strength 395 MPa.

Open access

M. Tenerowicz-Zaba, M. Kupkova, M. Kabatova, E. Dudrova, M. Dzupon and M. Sulowski

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of 1-3%Mn steels and compare the resultant microstructures, strengths and failure mechanisms with those of conventionally sintered materials. SPS was performed in a vacuum of 5 Pa at 1000°C for 15min under a uniaxial pressure of 20 MPa. The heating rate of 100°C/min was applied. For conventional processing, mixtures of powders were prepared in a Turbula mixer for 30 minutes. Samples were single pressed at 660 MPa, according to PN-EN ISO 2740 standard. Sintering of compacts was carried out in a laboratory tube furnace at 1120°C and 1250°C for 60 minutes in a mixture of 95%N2-5%H2. Heating and cooling rates were 75C°/min and 60°C/min, respectively. The density of SPS samples was higher (up to 7.37 g/cm3) than those after conventional sintering (up to 6.7 g/cm3). Yield strengths of SPS samples were in the range 920-1220 MPa, compared to the maximum of 602 MPa for conventionally sintered Fe-3%Mn-0.8%C. Transverse rupture strengths were the same for this alloy, 1234 MPa, but reached 1473 MPa for SPS 2Mn variant. Interfaces in SPS samples were significantly less contaminated with oxides, which is the result of a more favorable microclimate and pressure acting during SPS. These preliminary results indicate that further research on the SPS of Mn steels is warranted.