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Open access

A.K. Kurpińska, A. Jarosz, M. Ożgo and W.F. Skrzypczak

Abstract

The final weeks of pregnancy and period of increasing lactation abound with adaptive changes in the intensity of metabolic processes. Maintaining the homeostasis of an organism in prepartum and postpartum periods is the key condition in maintaining the health of the mother and the fetus/calf. The aim of the study was to analyze physiological changes in lipid metabolism in cows during the last month of first pregnancy and in the first two months of lactation, based on the expression of identified apolipoproteins and changes in selected parameters of the lipid metabolism in peripheral blood plasma. Statistically significant changes in the expression of identified apolipoproteins were observed for apolipoprotein A-1 precursor, apolipoprotein A-IV precursor, apolipoprotein E precursor and apolipoprotein J precursor. The lowest expression of the apolipoproteins was noted around parturition and higher expression was observed during the final weeks of pregnancy and during lactation. Tendencies of changes in the concentration of total cholesterol, HDL and LDL were similar in blood plasma from analyzed cows – in the last month of pregnancy a decrease was observed and subsequently an increase in the first two months of lactation was noted. In contrast to abrupt changes observed for total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, changes in concentration of triglycerides were not that extensive and during lactation this parameter was rather stable. Evaluation of changes in the analyzed parameters may contribute to a better understanding of the changes in lipid metabolism occurring in the body of pregnant and lactating young cows.

Open access

J. Bieżyński, P. Skrzypczak, A. Piątek, N. Kościółek and M. Drożdżyńska

Assessment of treatment of Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of shoulder joint in dogs-the results of two years of experience

Osteochondrosis is a common and clinically important joint disorder that occurs in human and many species of animals such as pigs, horses and dogs. The aim of this article is to present the results of conservative and surgical treatment of Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) and to compare the recovery time in relation to race, age and extent of cartilage damage.

The study was performed on 36 dogs of both sexes, aged from 4 to 24 months, weighing 12-70 kg, of different breeds (predisposed and non-specific for this disease). All patients underwent clinical, orthopedic and radiological examination through which the location of OCD changes in the shoulder joint and the degree of this problem were established.

Based on the examinations the patients were qualified for particular treatment procedures. Control tests were performed after 14, 30 and 60 days, which allowed for a precise evaluation of the progress of therapy.

Achieved results indicate that dogs age and the lesions extent in the shoulder joint have an impact on the outcome of treatment. Studies showed that the best therapeutic effects were obtained in dogs aged 6-10 months, which underwent surgery. The study proved that the early diagnosis of OCD strongly influence the recovery rate and may inhibit the development of degenerative changes in the joint (DJD).

Open access

M. Skrzypczak and L. Rolbiecki

Abstract

Turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a fish belonging to the Pleuronectiformes order. It is commonly observed in waters of the northern Atlantic, and also in the Baltic Sea. As an economically significant species, it is fished on an industrial scale, and also farmed in some European countries. Seventy-two turbots from the Gulf of Gdańsk (26th ICES zone) were examined for parasite presence in the years 2010-2012. The study revealed the presence of the tapeworm Bothriocephalus scorpii (Müller, 1776) and acanthocephalan Corynosoma semerme (Forssell, 1904). The overall (both parasites) prevalence of turbot infection was 100% with a mean intensity of 18.7. C. semerme is a parasite which has not been noted so far in turbot from the southern Baltic. The presence of C. semerme in turbot was emphasized in the context of possible infection of terrestrial mammals, including humans.

Open access

Ł. Adaszek, P. Klimiuk, M. Skrzypczak, M. Górna, J. Ziętek and S. Winiarczyk

The identification of Anaplasma spp. isolated from fallow deer (Dama dama) on a free-range farm in eastern Poland

The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. in group of 50 fallow deer (Dama dama) from free-range farm in eastern Poland and determine what species of Anaplasma could infect these animals based on PCR gene sequencing. The PCR technique revealed the presence of 16S RNA Anaplasma spp. genetic material in the blood of 7 out of 50 examined animals. The sequences of the PCR products obtained showed a 100% homology with each other and 100% homology with GU 183908 sequence of A. phagocytophilum, isolated in our earlier study from a horse with clinical form of anaplasmosis. Here, we report the first molecular evidence of Anaplasma spp. among naturally infected fallow deer in eastern Poland.

Open access

Ł. Adaszek, B. Dzięgiel, M. Krzysiak, M. Skrzypczak, M. Adaszek, M. Staniec, D. Wyłupek and S. Winiarczyk

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA in a group of 120 wild bison (Bison bonasus) from the Bialowieza Primeval Forest in eastern Poland. The PCR technique revealed the presence of 16S RNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the blood of 16 out of 120 examined animals. DNA amplification by means of primers SC1 and SC2 gave a product with a size of 300-bp. The sequences of the PCR products obtained showed 100% homology with each other and 100% homology with B. burgdorferi s.l. 16S RNA gene DQ111061. Results of this study suggest that wild bison are important in maintaining agents of Lyme borreliosis, and that studies of reservoir competence of this species are indicated.

Open access

A. Lepczyński, A. Herosimczyk, M. Ożgo and W.F. Skrzypczak

Abstract

The study was undertaken to determine the effect of feeding milk or milk-replacer on the blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in calves during the second week of life. Feeding milk-replacer significantly decreased the expression of plasma apoA-I. Age of calves affected apoA-I expression, which was higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day of life. A significant effect of interaction between diet and age was also observed. The expression of apoA-IV, was significantly affected by diet and was lower in calves fed milk replacer. Expression of this protein was significantly lower at the 8th day of life and was up-regulated in the calves fed milk-replacer at the second week of life. Calves fed milk-replacer had greater expression of haptoglobin, which differed significantly between days of blood sampling, being higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day. The interactive effect of diet and age affected haptoglobin expression, which was successively down-regulated in calves fed milk replacer. Diet had a significant effect on the plasma lipid profile. Animals fed milk had a greater concentration of TC, HDLC and LDLC. The composition of milk-replacer, especially fat source, is probably the main factor that affects expression of proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism and level of components of lipid profile in calves fed formula. We claim that the initially increased level of haptoglobin, followed by its decrease during the second week of life in calves fed milk-replacer may indicate the presence of short-term stress induced by changes in the feeding system.

Open access

A. Herosimczyk, A. Lepczyński, M. Ożgo, A. Dratwa-Chałupnik, K. Michałek and W.F. Skrzypczak

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to determine blood plasma protein and lipid profile changes in healthy Polish Holstein-Fresian calves of Black-and-White variety. Blood was drawn immediately after birth, before first colostrum intake and at the 3rd, 6th, 12th, 24th, 36th, 48th and 72nd hour of life. Subsequent four blood samples were collected at 24 hour intervals until the 7th day of life. Plasma proteins within the isoelectric point ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 were separated using high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis. Among the 74 protein spots detected and analyzed, 16 were significantly altered during the first week of life. Differentially expressed spots were excised from the gels and subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF MS. In total, 12 spots were successfully identified, which correspond to three proteins, namely: apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein A-IV and fibrinogen gamma-B chain. A gradual increase in plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol values was shown during the first seven days of calves life. The lowest concentration of these indicators were observed at birth and was followed by a rapid increase during the first week of postnatal life. These changes appear to be related to the transition in energy sources, from a maternal nutrient supply comprising mainly carbohydrates and amino acids to a diet which was rich in fat - colostrum and milk. This was reflected by the intense up-regulation of plasma proteins related with lipid transport and lipoprotein metabolism during the first week of life.

Open access

A.K. Ciechanowicz, M. Ożgo, Ł.R. Stański, A. Herosimczyk, A. Piotrowska, R. Szymeczko, M. Laszczyńska and W.F. Skrzypczak

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to establish protein map of polar fox (Alopex lagopus) renal cortex. Kidney cortex proteins of isoelectric point ranging from 3 to 10 were analysed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Sixteen protein spots corresponding to thirteen different gene products were identified. These proteins were divided into following groups: lipid and fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energetic pathways, regulatory proteins, transport proteins and structural proteins. This is the first attempt to create reproducible 2-D map, of renal cortex proteins characteristic for polar foxes, used as animal model for carnivores. It is worth emphasizing that the results of this study may broaden currently available protein databases

Open access

M. Kalinowski, Ł. Adaszek, P. Miłoszowska, M. Skrzypczak, A. Ziętek-Barszcz, J. Kutrzuba, Z. Grądzki and S. Winiarczyk

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform molecular analysis of canine adenovirus 2 (CAV-2) E1B 19K gene fragment isolated from 20 dogs of various breeds (12 males and 8 females aged 1-9 years), with clinical symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, from the Lubelszczyzna region. Nasal swabs were taken from dogs. DNA of CAV-2 was detected using the PCR method in 16 swabs. All PCR products were sequenced, and the obtained sequences were compared with each other and with the sequence of the E1B 19K gene of the CAV-2 strain from an online database of NCBI GenBank: AC 000003. Based on analysis of the obtained sequences, three polymorphic variants of CAV-2 (No.1-3) with homology of 78 - 100% were distinguished. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the most frequently represented polymorphic variant, No. 1, differed from the sequences of polymorphic variant No. 2 with one substitution. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the E1B 19K gene of CAV-2 AC 000003 differed from the analogous sequences of representatives of variant No. 1 with 44 nucleotide and 19 amino acid substitutions. The small number of nucleotide differences in the E1B 19K CAV-2 gene among the examined own isolates, compared with AC 000003, suggest that the infections in dogs were caused by a relatively genetically stable virus which occurs in eastern Poland.

Open access

T. Banach, M. Bochniarz, P. Łyp, Ł. Adaszek, W. Wawron, B. Furmaga, M. Skrzypczak, J. Ziętek and S. Winiarczyk

Abstract

The aim of this study was to use matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. The study material consisted of 33 isolates of CNS, identified by the results of API Staph tests, obtained from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. Based on the spectra analyses, MALDI-TOF MS tests of 33 bacterial samples allowed identification of the microorganisms in 27 cases (81.8%). The most frequent cause of subclinical mastitis was found to be Staphylococcus sciuri (39%), while S. vitulinus was detected in 15% of the milk samples. The results obtained indicate that MALDI-TOF MS can be used for the identification of CNS isolated from bovine mastitis as a method supplementary to biochemical tests.