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Open access

G. Boczkal and M. Perek-Nowak

Abstract

The conducted studies regarded the analysis of change of structure of point defects occurring during initial stage of recovery of FCC (Al, Cu) and HCP (Ti, Mg and Zn) metals at temperature close to Th =0.5Tm. The changes in resistivity of the deformed and later recovered samples were measured. The recovery time was 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 min. The observed changes were correlated with reorganization of arrangement of lattice defects during annealing.

Open access

G. Boczkal, P. Marecki and M. Perek-Nowak

The Influence of Soldering Conditions on Conductivity, Structure and Strength of Cu/Sn96Ag4 Solders

In the paper the electrical properties of the Cu/Sn96Ag4 solders were studied. The studied solders were produced at 200, 220 and 250°C and within time range 3 to 90 s. Soldering temperatures were chosen to assure the best soldering conditions for the Cu/Sn96Ag4 alloy. The most appropriate temperature of 200°C is the one just above the melting point. The temperature of 250°C is the maximal one recommended by producers, which can be applied for the electronic elements during soldering. The studies have shown that the best electrical properties and tensile strength Rm have samples soldered at times 3 and 30 s, while the highest specific resistance together with the lowest Rm value are observed for samples soldered at the time of 10 s. The soldering temperature have small influence on the strength of the connection/bond however it shows significant affect on the electrical properties.

Open access

M. Perek-Nowak and G. Boczkal

Abstract

Interdiffusion between Fe (Armco) and Cu single crystals of similar orientation (around [110]) annealed at temperatures of 873 and 973K in air for 0.5 up to 4 h is studied. Formation of three phases different in their chemical composition has been observed: 1) oxide layer on Cu border (porous), 2) a layer rich in copper, iron and oxygen, 3) a layer of iron and oxygen with only small addition of Cu. All reactions of interface formation occurred in solid state. It was noted that oxygen plays an important role in development of new phases. Strong Kirkendall effect is observed due to large difference in diffusion coefficients of copper atoms to iron, DCu→Fe=300exp(-67800/RT) and iron atoms to copper DCu→Fe=0.091exp(-46140/RT).

Open access

B. Leszczyńska-Madej, M.W. Richert and M. Perek-Nowak

Abstract

Processes of severe plastic deformation (SPD) are defined as a group of metalworking techniques in which a very large plastic strain is imposed on a bulk material in order to make an ultra-fine grained metal. The present study attempts to apply Equal-Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP), Hydrostatic Extrusion (HE) and combination of ECAP and HE to 99.5% pure aluminium. ECAP process was realized at room temperature for 16 passes through route Bc using a die having an angle of 90°. Hydrostatic extrusion process was performed with cumulative strain of 2.68 to attain finally wire diameter of d = 3 mm. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the microhardness was measured and statistical analysis of the grains and subgrains was performed. Based on Kikuchi diffraction patterns misorientation was determined. The measured grain/subgrain size show, that regardless the mode of deformation process (ECAP, HE or combination of ECAP and HE processes), grain size is maintained at a similar level – equal to d = 0.55-0.59 μm. A combination of ECAP and HE has achieved better properties than either single process and show to be a promising procedure for manufacturing bulk UFG aluminium.

Open access

G. Boczkal, M. Perek-Nowak and Z. Majewska

The analysis of the connection steel/Al/steel made by resistance welding was performed. The used low-carbon steel had low content of carbon and other elements, aluminum was of 99.997 wt.% Al purity. Formation of various FeAl intermetallic phases found in the phase diagram depending on the duration of the process was analyzed. Two distinctively different types of structure depending on time of welding were observed: 1) hypoeutectic structure for samples processed for 5 s, and 2) eutectic structure for samples processed for 10 s and more. The shear test showed increase of mechanical properties of the connection for the samples welded 10 s.

Open access

Z. Kwak, S. Rzadkosz, A. Garbacz-Klempka, M. Perek-Nowak and W. Krok

Abstract

Currently there is a constant development in the field of aluminium alloys engineering. This results from, i.a., better understanding of the mechanisms that direct strengthening of these alloys and the role of microalloying. Now it is microalloying in aluminum alloys that is receiving a lot of attention. It affects substantially the macro- and microstructure and kinetics of phase transformation influencing the properties during production and its exploitation. 7xxx series aluminum alloys, based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, are high-strength alloys, moreover, the presence of Zr and Sr further increases their strength and improves resistance to cracking.

This study aims to present the changes of the properties, depending on the alloy chemical composition and the macro- and microstructure. Therefore, the characteristics in the field of hardness, tensile strength, yield strength and elongation are shown on selected examples. Observations were made on ingot samples obtained by semi-continuous casting, in the homogenized state.

Samples were prepared from aluminum alloys in accordance with PN-EN 573-3: 2013. The advantage of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are undoubtedly good strength, Light-weight and resistance to corrosion. As widening of the already published studies it is sought to demonstrate the repeatability of the physical parameters in the whole volume of the sample.

Open access

A. Garbacz-Klempka, Ł. Kowalski, J. Gackowski and M. Perek-Nowak

Abstract

This study characterizes the bronze jewellery recovered from the Lusatian culture urn-field in Mała Kępa (Chełmno land, Poland). Among many common ornaments (e.g. necklaces, rings, pins) the ones giving evidence of a steppe-styled inspiration (nail earrings) were also identified. With the dendritic microstructures revealed, the nail earrings prove the implementing of a lost-wax casting method, whereas some of the castings were further subjected to metalworking. The elemental composition indicates the application of two main types of bronze alloys: Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Pb. It has been established that the Lusatian metalworkers were familiar with re-melting the scrap bronze and made themselves capable of roasting the sulphide-rich ores.

The collection from Mała Kępa has been described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X - ray analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint an alloy profile of the castings with a special emphasis on the nail earrings, the data-set (ED-XRF, EDS) was statistically evaluated using multidimensional analyses (FA, DA).

Open access

A. Garbacz-Klempka, Ł. Kowalski, J. Kozana, J. Gackowski, M. Perek-Nowak, G. Szczepańska and M. Piękoś

Abstract

This preliminary study characterizes the bronze metalworking on a defensive settlement of the Lusatian culture in former Kamieniec (Chełmno land, Poland) as it is reflected through casting workshop recovered during recent excavations. Among ready products, the ones giving evidence of local metallurgy (e.g. casting moulds and main runners) were also identified. With the shrinkage cavities and dendritic microstructures revealed, the artifacts prove the implementing a casting method by the Lusatian culture metalworkers. The elemental composition indicates application of two main types of bronzes: Cu-Sn and Cu-Pb. Aside these main alloying additions, some natural impurities such as silver, arsenic, antimony and nickel were found which may be attributed to the origin of the ore and casting technology.

The collection from Kamieniec was described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint either local or non-local profile of the alloys, the ED-XRF data-set was statistically evaluated using a factor analysis (FA).