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Contribution to the TLC separation of ursolic and oleanolic acid mixture

The aim of the study was to develop a rapid, simple, effective and reproducible TLC method for separation of a naturally occurring mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids. Because of the similarity of chemical structures, in situ derivatisation by iodine was necessary to separate these triterpenic acids. Separation was achieved on silica gel plates. After derivatisation, a chromatographic plate was developed with the mobile phase consisting of light petrol, ethyl acetate and acetone (8.2:1.8:0.1, v/v/v) following visualisation by spraying with sulphuric acid in diethylether (25%, v/v) and heating to 120°C for 5 min. The method used enabled chromatographical differentiation of ursolic and oleanolic acid mixtures in all tested mutual ratios.

Beneficial effects of red wine polyphenols on cardiovascular health are well known. The aim of our research was an interaction study of four red wine polyphenols – resveratrol (R), quercetin (Q), kaempferol (KF) and isorhamnetin (IR) of their ability to activate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) promoter when used alone and in equimolar mixtures. To determine their activity, we performed a luciferase reporter gene assay on EA.hy926 cells stably transfected with a luciferase reporter gene construct containing eNOS promoter. The Bradford assay was also performed to account the cytotoxicity and/or the cell number differences. The median effect equation, as an interaction analysis evaluating synergy or antagonism of the combinations was done according to mass-action law principle. Isobolographic method was performed on selected double mixtures and dose reduction index was calculated for all mixtures. All single polyphenols activated eNOS promoter. The EC50 values were in micromolar concentrations ranging from 3.44 μM (R2 = 0.96) for kaempferol to 9.89 μM for isorhamnetin (R2 = 0.94). All mixtures activated eNOS promoter, but their interactions varied from synergy (Q+R, Q+IR+KF, Q+R+KF and Q+R+IR+KF), through additive (R+IR+KF) to antagonistic interaction (R+IR, R+KF, Q+IR, Q+KF, IR+KF and R+Q+IR). In this study, we show for the first time that red wine polyphenols activated eNOS promoter when used alone and in mixtures with different type of interactions.


Resveratrol and caffeic acid belong to plant polyphenols and are known for their antioxidant effects. The aim of our research was to study their impact on Maillard reaction. This one occurs when the reducing saccharides react with amino groups of biomolecules including proteins, alter their protein conformation and transform to the variety of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs exhibit browning and generate fluorescence. There exist expectations that this oxidative protein glycosylation could be prevented by antioxidants. In this study, we incubated bovine serum albumin (BSA) with glucose for 7 days at 37°C and measured characteristic fluorescence and UV absorbance of the formed AGEs. Surprisingly, resveratrol and caffeic acid enhanced transformation of BSA to glycation products, which was confirmed either when cupric Cu(II) or ferric Fe(III) ions in nanomolar concentration were added to the system as pro-oxidant agent.


The distribution of species of the Xiphinema americanumgroup in Hungary was studied by collecting 272 samples from 53 localities. Samples have been taken from soil in the rhizosphere of 70 plant species. In total, 12.86 % of the samples contained at least one species from the Xiphinema americanum-group. Three species were found: Xiphinema brevicollum, X. pachtaicum and X. simile. Xiphinema brevicollum occurred in 4.41 %, X. pachtaicum in 3.67 % and X. simile in 4.77 % of the samples. New data on plants associated with the reported species and developmental patterns for X. brevicollum and X. pachtaicum are also presented.


The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of life of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament single-bundle reconstruction (ACLR) which involves reconstructing the ligament using autologous graft (semitendinosus and gracilis tendon). This is a retrospective study undertaken between the 1st of January 2010 and December 31, 2011 at the Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology Tîrgu-Mureş, involving 30 patients (6 women, 24 men), 17 to 54 years old (mean age of 30.13 years). All the patients underwent ACLR, with the above mentioned technique. The instrument chosen to assess the quality of life was the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Questionnaire, completed by telephone. This questionnaire has 8 scales which are noted according to the received answers: Physical Functioning (PF), RF (Role Physical), BP (Bodily Pain), GH (General Health), VT (Vitality), SF (Social Functioning), RE (Role Emotional) and MH (Mental Health). The best way to score these scales is by comparing them to the healthy population, which is why this study uses normbased scales where the mean value is 50 and the standard deviation is 10. The scales used in the questionnaire are showed the next results: mean norm-based PF 49.19, RF 46.11, BP 49.82, GH 52.19, VT 52.14, SF 50.43, RE 41.36 and MH 47.18. The general Physical Component showed a mean of 48.93 and the Mental Component a mean of 47.33, close to the standard mean of 50. All these results were included in the standard deviation, which showed that the patients’ quality of life was very close to the quality of life of the normal population. Patients who have a history of ACLR tend to have a quality of life similar to the normal, healthy population.


Artificial Intelligence (AI) invades fields where sophisticated analytics has not been applied before. Modality refers to how something happens or is experienced. Multimodal datasets are beneficial for solving complex research problems with AI methods. Kayaking technique optimization has been challenging, as there seems to be no gold standard for effective paddling techniques since there are outstanding athletes with profoundly different physical capabilities and kayaking styles.

Multimodal analysis can help find the most effective paddling techniques for training and competition based on individuals’ abilities.

We describe the characteristics of the output power of kayak athletes and Electromyogram (EMG) measurements collected from the most critical muscles, and the relationship between these modalities. We propose metrics (weighted arithmetic mean difference and variability of power output and stroke duration) suitable for discerning athletes based on how efficiently and correctly they perform particular training tasks. Additionally, the described methods (asymmetry, coactivation, muscle intensity-output power) help athletes and coaches in assessing their performance and compare it with others based on their EMG activities.

As the next step, we will apply machine-learning approaches on the synchronized dataset we collect with the described methods to reveal desirable EMG and stroke patterns.


This study investigated the changes in: thyroid hormones, amount of subcutaneous fat, and selected indices of blood biochemistry in dairy cows in relation to the reproduction/production cycle. The blood samples were collected both ante- and post-partum every two weeks. When evaluating the mean values of the investigated indices, the major changes were recorded in dairy cows 3 to 14 days after calving. During this period, we observed a significant decrease in the mean serum levels of T3 (P < 0.05), T4 (P < 0.01), and triglycerides (P < 0.01). An opposite trend was observed with a significant increase after calving in the: mean serum levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (P < 0.05), urea (P < 0.01), and mean AST activities (P < 0.05). A significant increase over the normal range was recorded in the average levels of non-esterified fatty acids (P < 0.01) and total bilirubin (P < 0.01). From the next sampling (28 days after calving) onwards we recorded a significant increase in the blood serum levels of cholesterol (P < 0.01), total lipids (P < 0.01), total protein (P < 0.01), as well as a significant decrease in the insulin levels (P < 0.05) and a reduced layer of subcutaneous fat (P < 0.01). The blood serum iodine concentration showed only slight significant changes (P < 0.05) during the observation. Blood serum levels of glucose did not show any significant changes during the whole observation period. Within the whole observation period we found a negative correlation between T3 levels and the layer of subcutaneous fat (r = −0.2606; P < 0.05). This correlation was much more marked in cows 3 to 14 days after calving (r = −0.5077; P < 0.05), which may indicate a possible relationships between the thyroid status, body condition, and post partum negative energy balance.


Total hip replacement is one of the most frequently performed orthopaedic interventions that can significantly improve the functional status and the quality of life of patients suffering from hip arthrosis. Recently patient satisfaction and patient-reported results of total hip arthroplasty are increasingly emphasised as important tools for the assessments of these interventions. For patients with arthrosis secondary to hip dysplasia, these evaluations can be more difficult, due to younger age and higher functional demands. In this study we compared the Visual Analogue Scale and the Harris Hip Score in order to determine the correlations between these instruments and analyse the possibility of replacing the Harris Score with the Visual Analogue Scale in evaluating the results of hip surgery in patients with dysplastic hips. Our study included 37 women and 4 men (53 hips), with a mean age of 50.96 years (35-58 years), followed for a mean of 4 years postoperatively. Both assessment instruments were used preoperatively and at the follow-up visits. We observed a positive correlation of the values of the Visual Analogue Scale and the Harris Hip Score both preoperatively and postoperatively, with correlation coefficients of +0.71(P <0.001) and +0.77 (P <0.001) respectively. Given these positive correlations, we assumed that the Visual Analogue Scale could replace the Harris Hip Score in the evaluation of patients after total hip replacement. Still it is recommended to combine the Visual Analogue Scale with objective measurements and radiological examination in order to identify significant postoperative changes.


Peppermint belongs to one of most popular medicinal plants in pharmacy as well as in the food industry.

Aim: For the conventional usage, the aerial part, especially leaves, is used. This investigation was aimed at the determination of phenolic compound in peppermint rhizomes infusion and the comparison with the phenolics in leaves infusions.

Methods: For the separation and identification of the phenolic compounds, the Sykam HPLC-DAD connected with Microsaic 4500MiD®, a single quadrupole mass spectrometer, was used.

Results: Three compounds in rhizomes and eight compounds in leaves were identified and quantified. In rhizomes, rosmarinic acid was determined as the main secondary metabolite, but its content was three times lower than that in leaves. Infusion of peppermint leaves was richer in flavonoids content with eriocitrin as a major phenolic compound.

Conclusion: Rhizomes of peppermint may also be used as a potential source of rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid derivatives.


Enzootic pneumonia caused by hyopneumoniae (MHYO) remains a serious concern to the swine industry in many countries including Nigeria. MHYO strains isolated from pigs from different countries and geographical locations are known to vary in pathogenicity. There is a paucity of information on the pathogenicity of the MHYO strain affecting pigs in Nigeria. This study investigated the pathogenicity of the MHYO strain in naturally infected pigs using immunohisto-chemistry and electron microscopy. Two hundred and sixty four lungs of slaughtered pigs were randomly collected from abattoirs at Abeokuta, Ibadan and Lagos, in Southwest Nigeria. A sub-sample of 104 pneumonic and 20 apparently normal lungs was selected, processed for routine histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry, while 3 lung tissues samples were selected for ultrastructural studies. The most significant microscopic changes observed were suppurative broncho-interstitial pneumonia associated with varying degrees of lymphoid hyperplasia of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and thickened alveolar septa due to cellular infiltration consisting predominantly of neutrophils and a few mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemically, MHYO antigen was detected in 86/104 (82.69 %) of MHYO-infected lung tissues and typically exhibited a granular brown reaction on the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial lining, mononuclear cells in the BALT and luminal cellular exudates within the airways. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous Mycoplasma organisms in the lumina of the airways, in between degenerated cilia, while a few Mycoplasmas were located within the alveoli. It was concluded that the MHYO strain detected in this study was pathogenic to pigs and capable of inducing pneumonia, and therefore implicated in the pathogenesis.