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Open access

P. Mučaji and M. Nagy

Contribution to the TLC separation of ursolic and oleanolic acid mixture

The aim of the study was to develop a rapid, simple, effective and reproducible TLC method for separation of a naturally occurring mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids. Because of the similarity of chemical structures, in situ derivatisation by iodine was necessary to separate these triterpenic acids. Separation was achieved on silica gel plates. After derivatisation, a chromatographic plate was developed with the mobile phase consisting of light petrol, ethyl acetate and acetone (8.2:1.8:0.1, v/v/v) following visualisation by spraying with sulphuric acid in diethylether (25%, v/v) and heating to 120°C for 5 min. The method used enabled chromatographical differentiation of ursolic and oleanolic acid mixtures in all tested mutual ratios.

Open access

E. Kurin, N. Fakhrudin and M. Nagy

Beneficial effects of red wine polyphenols on cardiovascular health are well known. The aim of our research was an interaction study of four red wine polyphenols – resveratrol (R), quercetin (Q), kaempferol (KF) and isorhamnetin (IR) of their ability to activate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) promoter when used alone and in equimolar mixtures. To determine their activity, we performed a luciferase reporter gene assay on EA.hy926 cells stably transfected with a luciferase reporter gene construct containing eNOS promoter. The Bradford assay was also performed to account the cytotoxicity and/or the cell number differences. The median effect equation, as an interaction analysis evaluating synergy or antagonism of the combinations was done according to mass-action law principle. Isobolographic method was performed on selected double mixtures and dose reduction index was calculated for all mixtures. All single polyphenols activated eNOS promoter. The EC50 values were in micromolar concentrations ranging from 3.44 μM (R2 = 0.96) for kaempferol to 9.89 μM for isorhamnetin (R2 = 0.94). All mixtures activated eNOS promoter, but their interactions varied from synergy (Q+R, Q+IR+KF, Q+R+KF and Q+R+IR+KF), through additive (R+IR+KF) to antagonistic interaction (R+IR, R+KF, Q+IR, Q+KF, IR+KF and R+Q+IR). In this study, we show for the first time that red wine polyphenols activated eNOS promoter when used alone and in mixtures with different type of interactions.

Open access

V. Repasi, A. Agostinelli, P. Nagy, M. Coiro, K. Hecker and F. Lamberti

Abstract

The distribution of species of the Xiphinema americanumgroup in Hungary was studied by collecting 272 samples from 53 localities. Samples have been taken from soil in the rhizosphere of 70 plant species. In total, 12.86 % of the samples contained at least one species from the Xiphinema americanum-group. Three species were found: Xiphinema brevicollum, X. pachtaicum and X. simile. Xiphinema brevicollum occurred in 4.41 %, X. pachtaicum in 3.67 % and X. simile in 4.77 % of the samples. New data on plants associated with the reported species and developmental patterns for X. brevicollum and X. pachtaicum are also presented.

Open access

I. Gergely, O.M. Russu, Ancuţa Zazgyva, O. Nagy and T.S. Pop

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of life of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament single-bundle reconstruction (ACLR) which involves reconstructing the ligament using autologous graft (semitendinosus and gracilis tendon). This is a retrospective study undertaken between the 1st of January 2010 and December 31, 2011 at the Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology Tîrgu-Mureş, involving 30 patients (6 women, 24 men), 17 to 54 years old (mean age of 30.13 years). All the patients underwent ACLR, with the above mentioned technique. The instrument chosen to assess the quality of life was the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Questionnaire, completed by telephone. This questionnaire has 8 scales which are noted according to the received answers: Physical Functioning (PF), RF (Role Physical), BP (Bodily Pain), GH (General Health), VT (Vitality), SF (Social Functioning), RE (Role Emotional) and MH (Mental Health). The best way to score these scales is by comparing them to the healthy population, which is why this study uses normbased scales where the mean value is 50 and the standard deviation is 10. The scales used in the questionnaire are showed the next results: mean norm-based PF 49.19, RF 46.11, BP 49.82, GH 52.19, VT 52.14, SF 50.43, RE 41.36 and MH 47.18. The general Physical Component showed a mean of 48.93 and the Mental Component a mean of 47.33, close to the standard mean of 50. All these results were included in the standard deviation, which showed that the patients’ quality of life was very close to the quality of life of the normal population. Patients who have a history of ACLR tend to have a quality of life similar to the normal, healthy population.

Open access

A. Gyenes, M. Benke, N. Teglas, E. Nagy and Z. Gacsi

Abstract

According to the directives (RoHS and WEEE) adopted by the European Union, lead has been banned from the manufacturing processes because of its health and environmental hazards. Therefore, the development of lead-free solders is one of the most important research areas of the electronic industry. This paper investigates multicomponent Sn-Ag-Cu based lead-free solders with different compositions. The properties of the six-component Innolot (SAC+BiSbNi) and two low-Ag containing alloys were compared with the widespread used SAC307 solder. Microstructure investigations and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed to analyze and identify the formed phases, furthermore, tensile tests and microhardness measurements were executed to determine the mechanical properties of the examined solders.

Open access

Zuh S.G, Nagy Ö., Zazgyva Ancuța, Russu O.M., Gergely I. and Pop T.S.

ABSTRACT

Total hip replacement is one of the most frequently performed orthopaedic interventions that can significantly improve the functional status and the quality of life of patients suffering from hip arthrosis. Recently patient satisfaction and patient-reported results of total hip arthroplasty are increasingly emphasised as important tools for the assessments of these interventions. For patients with arthrosis secondary to hip dysplasia, these evaluations can be more difficult, due to younger age and higher functional demands. In this study we compared the Visual Analogue Scale and the Harris Hip Score in order to determine the correlations between these instruments and analyse the possibility of replacing the Harris Score with the Visual Analogue Scale in evaluating the results of hip surgery in patients with dysplastic hips. Our study included 37 women and 4 men (53 hips), with a mean age of 50.96 years (35-58 years), followed for a mean of 4 years postoperatively. Both assessment instruments were used preoperatively and at the follow-up visits. We observed a positive correlation of the values of the Visual Analogue Scale and the Harris Hip Score both preoperatively and postoperatively, with correlation coefficients of +0.71(P <0.001) and +0.77 (P <0.001) respectively. Given these positive correlations, we assumed that the Visual Analogue Scale could replace the Harris Hip Score in the evaluation of patients after total hip replacement. Still it is recommended to combine the Visual Analogue Scale with objective measurements and radiological examination in order to identify significant postoperative changes.

Open access

I. Paulíková, H. Seidel, O. Nagy, Cs. Tóthová, J. Konvičná, M. Kadaši and G. Kováč

Abstract

This study investigated the changes in: thyroid hormones, amount of subcutaneous fat, and selected indices of blood biochemistry in dairy cows in relation to the reproduction/production cycle. The blood samples were collected both ante- and post-partum every two weeks. When evaluating the mean values of the investigated indices, the major changes were recorded in dairy cows 3 to 14 days after calving. During this period, we observed a significant decrease in the mean serum levels of T3 (P < 0.05), T4 (P < 0.01), and triglycerides (P < 0.01). An opposite trend was observed with a significant increase after calving in the: mean serum levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (P < 0.05), urea (P < 0.01), and mean AST activities (P < 0.05). A significant increase over the normal range was recorded in the average levels of non-esterified fatty acids (P < 0.01) and total bilirubin (P < 0.01). From the next sampling (28 days after calving) onwards we recorded a significant increase in the blood serum levels of cholesterol (P < 0.01), total lipids (P < 0.01), total protein (P < 0.01), as well as a significant decrease in the insulin levels (P < 0.05) and a reduced layer of subcutaneous fat (P < 0.01). The blood serum iodine concentration showed only slight significant changes (P < 0.05) during the observation. Blood serum levels of glucose did not show any significant changes during the whole observation period. Within the whole observation period we found a negative correlation between T3 levels and the layer of subcutaneous fat (r = −0.2606; P < 0.05). This correlation was much more marked in cows 3 to 14 days after calving (r = −0.5077; P < 0.05), which may indicate a possible relationships between the thyroid status, body condition, and post partum negative energy balance.

Open access

A. Ali, G. Elmowalid, M. Abdel-Glil, T. Sharafeldin, F. Abdallah, S. Mansour, A. Nagy, B. Ahmed and M. Abdelmoneim

Abstract

Epidemic outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) virus H5N1 have been frequently reported in Egypt during the last nine years. Here we investigate the involvement of AI H5N1 in outbreaks of acute respiratory disease that occurred in several commercial chicken farms in Egypt in 2011, and we describe to the pathology caused by the virus in the course of the outbreak.

Twenty-one chicken farms with history of acute respiratory symptoms and high mortalities were screened for AI H5N1. Virus identification was based on hemagglutination inhibition test, and PCR detection and sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. Virus distribution was determined by immunohistochemical staining of AI antigens in organs of infected birds. Standard H&E staining was performed for histological examination of affected organs.

Eighty-one % of the examined birds, representing 100% of the screened farms, were positive for AI H5N1 virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the isolated virus reveals its affiliation to clade 2.2.1. Viral antigens were localized in the endothelial cells of the heart, liver, lungs and skin, where pathological lesions including congestion, hemorrhages, multifocal inflammation and necrosis were concurrently observed. According to the pattern of the viral antigen and lesion distribution in the visceral organs, we suggest cardiovascular and circulatory failures as the probable cause of death during these outbreaks. In conclusion, the present study further confirms the epidemic status of AI H5N1 virus in Egypt and reveals the highly pathogenic nature of the local isolates.

Open access

Á. Daragó, M. Szabó, K. Hrács, A. Takács and P. Nagy

Abstract

The application of Trichoderma spp. for the suppression of plant-parasitic nematode populations is a promising tool in biological control. Sixteen strains of six Trichoderma species (T. atroviride, T. harzianum, T. rossicum, T. tomentosum, T. virens and T. asperellum) were tested in vitro in order to identify the most appropriate strains to control the dagger nematode Xiphinema index. Mortality assays revealed that the strains of the widely investigated T. harzianum species have caused significant reduction of X. index populations, although T. harzianum strains were not the most efficient among all the tested fungi. Certain T. virens and T. atroviride strains and T. rossicum have triggered faster and higher mortality. Generally, our data indicate that Trichoderma species have innate ability to decrease X. index population. Furthermore, as we had difficulties with maintaining X. index in vitro, we successfully used a newly developed method to keep X. index specimens viable during the experiments.

Open access

Attila Fülöp, Lőrinc Bărbos, Gábor M. Bóné, Szilárd J. Daróczi, Luca A. Dehelean, Réka B. Kiss, István Kovács, Attila Nagy and Tamás Papp

Abstract

In Dobrogea, a core area for wind energy exploitation in Romania, existing knowledge regarding the intensity and pattern of bird migration is limited. In the absence of enumerated data, wind farms may be constructed in areas where large aggregations of migrants pass. In this study we recorded the intensity of the autumn migration of soaring birds in three locations within the Măcin Mountains, where wind farms are planned to be built. The locations chosen were at Văcăreni, Greci and Cerna villages. Furthermore we categorized all migrating individuals as threatened or non-threatened by the planned wind farms, based on their migration routes and height at local scale. At Văcăreni 4.716 individuals were counted, 3.394 raptors and 1.322 non-raptors, at Greci 2.387 individuals, 2.064 raptors and 323 non-raptors, and finally at Cerna, 5.268 individuals, 4.529 raptors and 739 non-raptors. At all three sites a significant proportion of birds, both raptors and non-raptors, were found to be threatened by the proposed wind farms. At Văcăreni 68.33% of raptors and 84.95% of non-raptors were at threat, at Greci 44.48% and 54.18% respectively, and at Cerna 59.37% and 94.86%. As such we conclude that intensive migration occurs in North Dobrogea and wind farms would have a considerable negative impact on migrants in the studied areas