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M. Sarfraz, S.A. Khan, A. Moosa, A. Farzand, U. Ishaq, I. Naeem and W.A. Khan

Abstract

In vitro antifungal potential of Trichoderma isolates, selective botanical extracts and fungicides against A. solani was evaluated. Trichoderma isolates, i.e. T. harzianum, T. viride and T. hamatum, were tested for their antifungal effect by dual culture technique at 48, 96, 144 and 172 hrs. T. hamatum produced the highest inhibition of A. solani in vitro, followed by T. hazianum and T. viride after 172 hrs. Methanolic leaf extracts of Elettaria cardamomum, Syzygium aromaticum, Curcuma longa and root extract of Parthenium hysterophorus showed up to 100% inhibition of A. solani, compared to control, while methanolic stem and leaf extracts of P. hysterophorus produced up to 90% inhibition of the pathogen. In vitro, six different systemic fungicides Triger 25% EC (Tebuconazole), Solex (Carbendazim 40% + Triadimefon 10%), Dew (Difenoconazole), Amistor Top SC (Azoxystrobin + Difenoconazole), Corel 25% EC (Difenoconazole), Reflex (Difenoconazole + Propiconazole) were tested against A. solani at 5, 10 and 15 ppm concentrations after 48, 96, 144 and 172 hrs. Corel and reflex at all concentrations produced best growth inhibition of A. solani. The inhibition was maximum by all fungicides at 15 ppm after 172 hrs. All fungicides had a promising inhibitory effect on A. solani, except Solex. It can be concluded from the present investigation that a combination of these strategies can be used in integrated disease management of A. solani on potato.

Open access

M. Naeem, M. K. Siddiqui, J. L. G. Guirao and W. Gao

Abstract

The eccentricity εu of vertex u in a connected graph G, is the distance between u and a vertex farthermost from u. The aim of the present paper is to introduce new eccentricity based index and eccentricity based polynomial, namely modified augmented eccentric connectivity index and modified augmented eccentric connectivity polynomial respectively. As an application we compute these new indices for octagonal grid Onm and we compare the results obtained with the ones obtained by other indices like Ediz eccentric connectivity index, modified eccentric connectivity index and modified eccentric connectivity polynomial ECP(G, x).

Open access

Syed Mansoor Ali, W. A. Farooq, M. R. Baig, M.A. Shar, M. Atif, S. S. Alghamdi, M. S. Algarawi, Naeem Ur-Rehman and Muhammad Hammad Aziz

Abstract

We have investigated the influence of Ag doping on zinc oxide thin films. Pure and Ag doped, preferentially oriented transparent zinc oxide thin films were prepared by sol gel technique on a glass substrate using diethyl amine as a stabilizer. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films with hexagonal wurtzite type structure were polycrystalline in nature with a preferred grain orientation in the 101 direction. The crystallite sizes decreased from 34 nm to 27 nm after silver doping. Both photoluminescence and optical transmission measurements showed that the band gap increased after the Ag doping. The structure and optical characterization studies clearly indicated the incorporation of Ag in ZnO. Hence, the observed increase in the optical band gap and decrease in crystallite size can be directly attributed to the effect of Ag ion incorporation into the ZnO lattice.