A helminthological survey was performed on 143 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the city of Palermo (Italy). The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 98.60 %. The following parasites were found: Brachylaima sp. (prevalence 8.39 %) (Trematoda); Taenia taeniaeformis larvae (11.89 %), Rodentolepis nana (13.29 %), Hymenolepis diminuta (24.48 %) (Cestoda); Gongylonema sp., (4.90 %), Syphacia muris (8.39 %), Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (18.88 %), Eucoleus gastricus (30.07 %), Mastophorus muris (30.77 %), Capillaria hepatica (54.55 %), Heterakis spumosa (82.52 %) (Nematoda) and one acanthocephalan (0.70 %). The species found in males were also present in females, with the exception of the acanthocephalan. No significant differences were found between males and females in prevalence (P%) or mean infection intensity (MI). However, a significant correlation between both P% and MI, as well as host age, was observed in some helminth species. Hosts were infected by one to six helminth species (median = 3). This is the first report from Sicily of helminths in R. norvegicus.
In the paper methods for conducting Road Safety Inspections (SIs) in Italy and Poland are described and compared. The goal of the study is to improve the quality and efficiency of the safety inspections of road network by using low cost equipment (GPS, Tablet, Camera) and specific software. Particular attention was paid to the need for proper calibration of factors, causing traffic safety hazard associated with road infrastructure. The model developed according to the Italian procedures was adapted to comply with the checklists and evaluation criteria of the Polish guidelines. Overall, a good agreement between the two approaches was identified, however some modification was required to include new safety issues, characteristic for the Polish network for safety inspection of two lane rural roads. To test the applicability about 100 km of regional two lane roads in Poland were inspected with Polish and Italian procedures.