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M. Kolesárová, R. Herich, M. Levkut, J. Čurlík and M. Levkut

Abstract

PCR amplification of specific DNA regions is a powerful tool for retrospective studies, but not all preservation or fixation methods render DNA that is suitable for subsequent amplification. Several factors affect sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. There were reported the effects of commonly used fixation solutions — 10 % neutral buffered formalin, 20 % neutral buffered formalin and Carnoy’s solution and the efficiency of PCR amplification in fresh tissue and paraffin (or wax) embedded samples of Cysticercus ovis. DNA from samples was isolated and PCR product of 1300 bp was amplified. Results indicated that the samples fixed in Carnoy’s solution produced reliable amplification of desired fragments. The samples that were fixed in 10 % and 20 % neutral buffered formalin brought negative results.

Open access

M. Levkut, M. Fukasová, K. Bobíková, M. Levkutová, K. Čobanová and M. Levkut

Abstract

This study compared the effect of dietary supplementation with an inorganic or organic zinc source on the gut morphology in the jejunum of broilers. One-day-old chickens were fed a basal diet (Control group: BD — 32 mg Zn.kg−1 DM), or the same BD supplemented with 30 mg or 70 mg of Zn per kg of DM in the form of ZnSO4.H2O (Group 1: 30 mg ZnSO4; Group 2: 70 mg ZnSO4), and 30 mg or 70 mg of Zn per kg of DM in the form of zinc chelate of glycine hydrate (Group 3: 30 mg Zn-Gly; Group 4: 70 mg Zn-Gly) for 40 days. The villus height was increased in the groups which received 30 mg ZnSO4 and 70 mg ZnSO4 and or 70 mg ZnSO4, as compared to the BD and 30 mg Zn-Gly. The villus surface was higher in all groups receiving the Zn supplements in comparison to the BD.

Open access

V. Revajová, M. Levkut, A. Aldawek, R. Herich, E. Dvorožňáková and I. Krupicer

Abstract

To estimate the effect of lambs’ immunoreactivity to multiple Toxocara infection, subpopulations of lymphocytes, determination of specific IgG levels, proliferation activity of splenic lymphocytes, and metabolic activity of granulocytes were performed. Five-month-old Valaška lambs were daily infected with 1000 embryonated Toxocara canis eggs for 23 days and immune responses were studied up to 49 days post infection (dpi). The number of leukocytes and neutrophiles was no significantly higher on 12 hrs pi in infected group. Absolute counts of eosinophiles were increased on 14 dpi and significantly increased on 21 d in infected animals. Greater numbers of CD2+ T lymphocytes were observed during the course of the experiment in the peripheral blood of infected animals. The level of CD4+ cells was lower 42 dpi, but the number of CD8+ cells was higher in the experimental animals. IgM positive B cells were significantly increased on 28 dpi, and monocytes on 12 hours, 14 and 35 dpi in infected animals. Production of anti-T. canis IgG was significantly enhanced on 28 dpi in infected lambs. Significant increased proliferative response of splenic T and B lymphocytes was found on 14 and 21 dpi. Metabolic burst of granulocytes demonstrated the decrease of percentage values from 3 dpi. Larvae of T. canis were microscopically observed in the peripheral blood from 14 to 35 dpi. The multiple reinfection of sheep with 1000 T. canis eggs caused eosinophilia, increased the proliferation activity of B-and T-cells and increased the production of T. canis specific antibodies. The cooperation of immune cells has directed to kill the larvae in the peripheral blood and trapping them in granulomas.

Open access

A. Marcin, M. Levkut, V. Revajová, B. Šoltysová and P. Naď

Abstract

This study was aimed at the comparison of the effects of dietary applications of sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis L.) on some digestive enzyme activities in the chyme of the jejunum, digestive characteristics, and selected bacterial microflora in the caecum. Seventy, one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated into two equal groups for 42 days. The feed mixture of the experimental group was supplemented with the essential oil at the level of 2.306 g.kg−1. This supplementation was absent in the control feed mixture. The main volatile compounds were analysed: Eucalyptol 85, alpha-thujon 148, betathujon 72, camphor 149 and borneol 37 g.kg−1. The digestive enzyme activities in the chyme of the jejunum increased as follows: amylolytic on days 16 (P < 0.01) and 29 (P < 0.001) as well as cellulolytic on days 16 (P < 0.05), 29 (P < 0.001), and 42 (P < 0.01). The proteolytic activity decreased on day 16 (P < 0.01). The intake of the additive, increased the digestibility of crude fibre (P < 0.01) on days 16, 29 and 42. The apparent assimilable mass coefficient of crude protein, corrected for protein catabolism, was increased in the experimental group on days 29(P < 0.05) and 42 (P < 0.01). The counts of Escherichia coli in the caecum decreased (P < 0.05) on days 29 and 42. The supplementation of chickens with the sage essential oil increased the crude fibre digestibility, the amylolytic and cellulolytic activities in the chyme of the jejunum, and decreased the counts of E. coli in the caecum.