The objective of the present study was to investigate the opinion of the managers working in the health system concerning their attitude towards the operations of control within the system and the impact of these operations on the activity of the health-care institutions.
Materials and Methods: From October 2016 till January 2017 using an anonymous questionnaire we studied the opinion of 407 medical doctors, medical and healthcare specialists working in various types of healthcare institutions for hospital care in Sofia and the countryside. Results: Only 1/5 of the respondents shared the opinion that the adequate control resulted in quality improvement of the provided medical caregiving, one in four (25,8%) believed that the control could raise the responsibilities of the officials with managerial titles; one in three (34,2%) shared the opinion it improved the responsibilities of the executives.
Conclusion: The new operational terms and conditions implemented in the health insurance system do not result in improving the work quality in the hospital, which allows the conclusion that by changing only the healthcare funding the desired positive changes could not be attained. The organization, management and provision of medical care should be generally revised.
M. Elshishka, V. Peneva, S. Lazarova and S. Kumari
Trichodorus similis associated with potato in the Czech Republic was described and illustrated. This study provides additional information on morphometrical and morphological characters of T. similis and integrates morphological and genetic data obtained by species-specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing (ITS1 and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA). The knowledge on morphological variability and genetic diversity is extended, and a rapid and accurate molecular diagnostics was successfully applied.
V. Peneva, G. Urek, S. Lazarova, S. Širca, M. Knapič, M. Elshishka and D. Brown
Data on the distribution of Longidoridae and nepoviruses in Bulgaria and Slovenia are summarized. Six species of Longidorus (L. apulus, L. attenuatus, L. arthensis, L. fasciatus, L. elongatus, L. macrosoma), one Paralongidorus species (P. maximus) and three Xiphinema species (X. diversicaudatum, X. index, X. rivesi) are known as natural vectors of nine nepoviruses in Europe. Currently, 10 and 13 species of Xiphinema; 6 and 15 of Longidorus are reported to occur in Slovenia and Bulgaria, respectively. Paralongidorus maximus has been reported only in Bulgaria. Among the virus vector species X. index, X. diversicaudatum and L. elongatus occur in both countries, X. rivesi only in Slovenia and L. attenuatus, L. macrosoma, X. italiae and P. maximus only in Bulgaria. A report of X. index and Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in Bulgaria was related to transgenic grape tolerance to the same virus. Nepoviruses have been reported from Slovenia, but despite an evident relationship in the occurrence of GFLV and X. index in several vineyards the only laboratory proven transmission is that of TRSV and ToRSV to bait plants by a Slovenian population of X. rivesi.
M. Groza, S. Lazarova, C. Costache, F. Luca, I. Rosca, E. Fanelli and V. Peneva
Additional data on the occurrence and distribution of Xiphinema non-americanum group species in Romania are provided. Xiphinema diversicaudatum, X. index, X. vuittenezi and X. italiae were recovered from vineyards and cherry fruit trees; adults and juvenile stages were described and analysed and the morphology/variability discussed. Multiplex PCR diagnostic test using species-specific primers designed by Wang et al. (2003) yielded amplification products with expected lengths for all screened populations of these four species. Two ribosomal markers (D2-D3 28 LSU rDNA and ITS) were sequenced and ITS RFLP patterns were obtained from two X. vuittenezi populations, which have shown some morphological differences. Comparatively low level of interpopulation genetic dissimilarity (<1 %) was revealed for both markers (for D2D3 — 0.5 %; for ITS — 0.7 %). Both populations of X. vuittenezi studied produced identical ITS-RFLP specific pattern that clearly identify this species.