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Open access

J. Smulko, A. Kwiatkowski and M. Gnyba

Detection of illicit chemicals by portable Raman spectrometer

The Raman spectrometers can be built as the portable devices and can be used in various places to detect illicit chemicals. This method has become popular due to deficiency of other fast methods that could be applied against terrorist attacks or could help police at their work. The Conception of a portable Raman spectrometer has been presented. The Description enclosures the presentation of the prepared device and its possible applications by presenting exemplary detection results.

Open access

M. Gnyba, J. Smulko, A. Kwiatkowski and P. Wierzba

Portable Raman spectrometer - design rules and applications

Raman spectroscopy has become more popular due to its new prospective field applications in forensic sciences, war against terrorism, environment protection and other field chemical analysis. Raman spectrometers can be miniaturised to portable devices and their price is decreasing due to development of optoelectronics components. Unfortunately, this technology has still numerous limitations that influence their design and limit the scope of possible applications. The conception and design of the portable Raman spectrometer is described, including discussion of performance and limitations of representative components of such device available on the market. An enhanced portable Raman spectrometer using two lasers, one emitting at 355 nm and the other at 785 nm, and employing advanced signal acquisition and data processing methods is presenented. Advantages of such system are outlined and example measurement results acquired using equivalent hardware are presented. Data processing flow for identification of chemicals is also described.

Open access

K. Żaba, P. Kita, M. Nowosielski, M. Kwiatkowski and M. Madej

Abstract

The article presents a properly planned and designed tests of the abrasive wear resistance 2024 aluminum alloy strips under friction conditions involving various lubricants. Test were focused on the selection of the best lubricant for use in industrial environment, especially for sheet metal forming. Three lubricants of the Orlen Oil Company and one used in the sheet metal forming industry, were selected for tests. Tests without the use of lubricant were performed for a comparison. The tester T-05 was used for testing resistance to wear. As the counter samples were used tool steel - NC6 and steel for hot working - WCL, which are typical materials used for tools for pressing. The results are presented in the form of the force friction, abrasion depth, weight loss and coefficient of friction depending on the lubricant used and the type of counter samples. The results allowed for predicting set lubricant-material for tools which can be applied to sheet metal made of aluminum alloy 2024.

Open access

K. Żaba, M. Nowosielski, P. Kita, M. Kwiatkowski, T. Tokarski and S. Puchlerska

Abstract

The paper presents the results of corrosion resistance of heat treated aluminized steel strips. Products coated by Al-10Si alloy are used among others in a manufacturing process of welded pipes as the elements of the car exhaust systems, working in high temperatures and different environments (eg. wet, salty). The strips and tubes high performance requirements are applied to stability, thickness and roughness of Al-Si coating, adhesion and corrosion resistance. Tubes working in elements of exhaust systems in a wide range of temperatures are exposed to the effects of many aggressive factors, such as salty snow mud. It was therefore decided to carry out research on the impact of corrosion on the environmental influence on heat treated aluminized steel strips. The heat treatment was carried out temperatures in the range 250-700°C for 30, 180, 1440 minutes. Then the coatings was subjected to cyclic impact of snow mud. Total duration of treatment was 12 months and it was divided into three stages of four months and at the end of each stage was made the assessment of factor of corrosion. The results are presented in the form of macroscopic, microscopic (using a scanning electron microscope) observations and the degree and type of rusty coating.

Open access

K. Zaba, S. Nowak, M. Kwiatkowski, M. Nowosielski, P. Kita and A. Sioma

Abstract

The aim of this paper is manufacturing of turbocharger engine jet blades made of nickel superalloys. Processes for producing molds and casting realized in a production line are special processes. It means that the results are known only after inspection of the finished product. There is lack of the methods and techniques of effective and efficient quality control of the work in stock, above all molds. Therefore, the unknown is the state ceramic mold for the precision casting, which resulting in risk of referral to a defective mold of the casting process and thus give the product does not comply, is eliminated in the final inspection.

One method of reducing this risk is particularly thorough monitoring of all parameters of each process and keeping them in the desired operating point. Operating point is a set of parameters of processes. Such monitoring is possible with the commitment to the methods and techniques to automatically, without human intervention, data collection and processing methods appropriate for use in operational control.

The paper presents results of research on the attitude to the problem of a special process. This change is the introduction to the process efficient and effective form of quality control tools in the course of its preparation. In this case, the method of photogrammetry, thermal imaging and computed tomography were used.

With the infrared camera will be possible to determine the temperature field, the disorder in relation to the pattern indicates the type of defect. Computed tomography and will be used to develop patterns of correlated defects associated with thermal imagers. Photogrammetry is the use of a model set of quality control (comparison of the actual state of the model *.CAD). It also allows the designation of a wall thickness of the mold.

Open access

M. Hojny, D. Woźniak, M. Głowacki, K. Żaba, M. Nowosielski and M. Kwiatkowski

Abstract

The paper presents example results of numerical and photogrammetric analysis leading to identify the causes of cracking and wrinkling during bathtub W1200 production. The verification of tools for the stamping of bathtub W1200 was performed using finite element method and photogrammetric system ATOS Triple Scan. A series of industrial tests was conducted to identify the model parameters. The major and minor strain distributions obtained from the finite element simulations were used in conjunction with the forming limit diagram to predict the onset of fracture. In addition, the effects of blank holder pressure and friction on the occurrence of fracture and wrinkling were investigated.

Open access

K. Żaba, S. Puchlerska, M. Kwiatkowski, M. Nowosielski, M. Głodzik, T. Tokarski and P. Seibt

Nickel superalloys as Inconel® are materials widely used in the aerospace industry among others for diffusers, combustion chamber, shells of gas generators and other. In most cases, manufacturing process of those parts are used metal strips, produced by conventional plastic processing techniques, and thus by hot or cold rolling. An alternative technology allowing for manufacturing components for jet engines is the technique of 3D printing (additive manufacturing), and most of all Direct Metal Laser Sintering, which is one of the latest achievement in field of additive technologies.

The paper presents a comparative analysis of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy Inconel®718 manufactured by plastic working and Direct Metal Laser Sintering technology, in the initial state, after deformation and after heat treatment.

Open access

K. Żaba, M. Nowosielski, S. Puchlerska, M. Kwiatkowski, P. Kita, M. Głodzik, K. Korfanty, D. Pociecha and T. Pieja

The paper presents the research results of the mechanical properties and microstructure of the material in initial state and parts made from nickel superalloy Inconel®718 in the rotary forming process with laser heating. In the first step was carried out basic research of chemical composition, mechanical properties, hardness and microstructure of sheet in initial state. Then from the metal sheet, in industrial conditions, was made axisymmetric parts in the flow and shear forming with laser heating. Parts were subjected to detailed studies focused on the analysis of changes in the mechanical properties and microstructure in the relation to the material in initial state. The analysis was based on the tests results of strength and plastic properties, hardness, microstructural observations and X-ray microanalysis in the areas where defects appear and beyond. The results are presented in the form of tables, charts, and photographs of the microstructure.