Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an arylesterase associated with serum high density lipoprotein particles. Its name is derived from hydrolyzing one of several organophosphate compounds, namely paraoxon. Recent studies have shown that PON1 plays a protective role in diseases associated with oxidative stress such as atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Studies have demonstrated reduction-oxidative state changes involving PON1 in humans and laboratory animal models. Although there is less information about the role of this enzyme in veterinary medicine, new data suggest that PON1 might be a new oxidative stress marker in animal patients, similarly to humans.